Ap World History Unit Test Review

Hammurabi
kind of the Babylonian Empire whom extended Babylon’s control over Mesopotamies. He created Hammurabi’s Code whiche were laws that consists of an “eye for an eye”
Abraham
God promised to give Abraham’s family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan ( the Promised Land). He plays a prominent role in Judaism, Christian, and Islamic Religions
Moses
Hebrew prophet from teh Old Testament who led the Israelites from Egypt, received the Ten Commandments from God
Buddha
also known as Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism and thus the first to be enlightened; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthly things
Confucius
also known as Kund Fuzi; major Chinese philosopher; developed the traditional Chinese ideology of Confucianism whose teachers and philosophy have influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Taiwannese, and Vietnames thought and life; philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men which emphasized correctness of social relationships, justice, and sincerity.
Laozi
Chinese philosopher; recommended retreat from society into nature; individual should seek to become altuned with Dao, “the way”
Socrates
Athenian philosopher that constantly questioned things and encouraged pursuit of wisdom urged rational reflection of moral decisions
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; tutor of Alexander the Great; believed knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world. Felt that the ideal life was one comtemplation
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia and conqueired Greece, Egypt, Persia, and part of northwest India; and spread Greek culture and learning across Empire
Shi Huang Di/ Qin Shihuangdi
Emperor of China, Founder of the brief Qin dynasty, that ruthlessly unified the warring states and introduced legalism. Aided China by standardizing measurements, language, etc. throughout China. He started building the Great Wall fo China.
Asoka
Ruler of India; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
Jesus of Nazareth
Jewish prophet and teacher, was persecuted and crucified, believed to be the Messiah in Christianisty, Christianity grew out of his life and teaching, advocate of the poor
Hunter-gatherer
a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
Nomadic
(of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Metallurgy
The science and technology of metals
Civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
Brahmins
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnationa
Dynastic Cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Monarchy
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
Infanticide
murdering an infant
Pastoral
a literary work idealizing the rural life (especially the life of shepherds)
Neolithic
latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)
social hierarchy
The division of society by rank or class
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Specialization
the special line of work you have adopted as your career
Secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Terraces
steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming
Bureaucracy
nonelective government officials
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Polytheism
The belief in many gods
Peloponnesian League
To counter the Delian League, Sparta and other enemies of other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League
Edict of Milan
a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.
Reincarnation
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person’s own actions
Diffusion
the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Upanishads
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
City-state
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Maize
tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears
Hellenistic Culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great’s Empire.
Cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
Scholar-gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
Monotheism
the belief in one god
Civil Service
the group of people whose job it is to carry out the work of the government
Heirarchy
a ranking according to status or ability; a group having authority
Son of Heaven
granted to an individual who is deserving, ruler is a link between heaven and earth, his duty is maintain order and dispense justice
Bhagavad-Gita
(Hinduism) the sacred ‘song of God’ composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Chandragupta
the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor of India.
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Confuciansim
the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Zoroastrianism
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
Judaism
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
Peloponnesian Wars
Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance in the western Mediterranean
Indus River Valley
a valley in northeren Pakistan that is between the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges
Tigris-Euphrates Civilization
This civilization was founded in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in a part of the Middle East long called Mesopotamia. It was one of the few cases of a civilization that started absolutely from scratch, with no examples to imitate.
Qin Dynasty
The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
Maya
this civilization stretched from southern Mexcio into northern Central America. This civilization’s history ended in mystery perhaps because of warfare, food shortages, famine, or disease
Etruscans
people that ruled Rome. Scholars believe that they were great metal workers and jewelers whose culture had been heavily influenced by Greece. They also helped the Romans by building sewers and walls. They helped shape system of government and introduced sculpture and painting.
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (184)
Nile River Valley
Began around 10,000 BC during the New stone Age. Many villages on it by 4500 BC–Attracted people because of its fertile land.
Shang Dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They’re best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
Chavin
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Sumerians
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
Roman Empire
an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
Huang He Civilization
The dynastic civilazation that believed a dynasty had to get the mandate of heaven to stay in power and when they lost the mandate of heaven they would be thrown out of power.
Zhou Dynasty
displaced Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system); overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the “Mandate of Heaven”; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher)
Aryan
one of a group of seminomadic people that originally came from eastern Europe and spoke a Indo-European language
Phoenicia
An ancient seafaring civilization located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Kush Kingdom
Linked Egypt + Mediterranean to inner Africa and Red Sea, strongly influenced by Egyptians, center for the spread of Egyptian culture to trading partners, ruled by Egyptians, adopted Egyptian customs, culture, religion, architecture