AP World History- Unit 2 Rome

Flashcard maker : Sam Arent
Republic
A government of elected officials.
Senate
The elected officials in the Roman Republic (only the wealthiest were represented)
Magistrates
Officials who carried out the day-to-day operations of the government who were selected by plebeians
Tribunes
Elected to represent the plebeians
Consuls
Elected to preside over the government and to serve as commanders of armies in military campaigns (had veto powers)
Checks and Balances
A way of dividing power to keep any part of government from becoming excessively powerful
Law of Twelve Tables
Written laws that were put on display
Cicero
One of the greatest members of the legal profession in Rome.
Carthage
A city-state across the Mediterranean on the north coast of Africa; fought Punic Wars with Rome
Punic Wars
Three wars between Rome and Carthage; Rome destroyed Carthage in the end
Vandals
Nomads who took Carthage and conquered Rome
Legions
Roman armies
Latifundia
Huge farmland bought by patricians
Spartacus Rebellion
When a slave named Spartacus led one of the largest slave revolts in history against Rome; thousands of slaves killed
Marius
A general who was elected six times to the consulship; Sulla beat him; uncle of Julius Caesar
Sulla
General who came from a more patrician family and beat Marius; drove from city by Julius Caesar
Pompey Magnus
Successful general who was beat by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Became sole consul and dictator for life; killed by Roman Senate due to him gaining so much power
Marc Antony
General who was beaten by Octavian
Octavian
Later known as Augustus; beat Marc Antony and became the first emperor; started Roman Empire
Battle of Actium
Battle between Octavian and Marc Antony for power; Octavian won
Pax Romana
Roman peacetime
Constantine
Emperor who declared the Christianity legal and the official religion of the Roman Empire
\”Edict of Milan\”
Christianity was declared legal in the Roman Empire by Constantine in this
St. Augustine
Wrote that even though Rome might fall to the barbarians, the city of God in heaven would remain
Separation of Church/State
Religion and government are separate
Silk Roads
Trade route connecting communities in Europe and Asia
Trans Regional Roads
Connected roads across Rome to help with trade and military
Virgil
Famous Roman writer who wrote \”The Aeneid\”
\”The Aeneid\”
Epic by Virgil that accurately forecasts the cultural, political, and military legacies of the Roman Empire
Ovid
Famous Roman writer who was banished by Augustus to the far edge of the Black Sea
Epicureanism
Roman philosophy that promoted living simply, enjoying the pleasures of life, and not focusing on appealing to the gods
Stoicism
Roman philosophy that emphasized that people should learn to accept the will of the gods and remained detached from pleasure and pain
Syncretism
Combining ideas from different sources; occurred in religion
Pontifex Maximus
High Priest in Rome
State Religion
Religion of the Roman Empire must obey; could pray to other gods as long as they prayed to state gods
Mystery Cults
Religious groups whose followers were promised an afterlife if they underwent secret rituals and purification rites
Jesus
The man who challenged traditional religious leaders and was regarded as a troublemaker by Roman officials; started Christianity
Peter
A follower of Jesus who spread the ideas of Christianity and is regarded today by the Roman Catholic Church as the first pope
Paul
Man who spread Christianity and inspired other preachers
Christianity
Monotheistic religion that appealed to urban poor, slaves, and women
Martyrdom
A willingness to die rather than give up one’s beliefs
Patricians
Wealthy Landowners
Plebeians
Small farmers, tradespeople, craftworkers, and common soldiers
Equestrian Class
A new class that was for rich Romans that were not descendants of the founders of Rome
Apennine Mountains
Mountain range that runs the length of the Italian peninsula and is less rugged than the mountains of Greece
Etruscans
Settled in Northern Italian Peninsula and responsible for early Rome
Latins
Lived in central Italy
Rome
Village on seven hills that became the capital of the Roman Empire
Tiber River
River that was near Rome and became good for trade
Tyrrhenian Sea
Sea near Rome that was good for Rome yet it was far enough away to be easily defended against sea-borne attackers
Catapults
Devices used to hurl stones a great distance
Siege Devices
Device used to break walls like a battering ram
Stirrup
Provided greater stability for riders and made horses easier to ride and control

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