Flashcard maker : Tony Foust
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Ferdinand sets off the power keg in Serbia
Nationalism – Pan Slavism
uniting Slavs
Causes of WWI (economic)
raw materials and markets
Causes of WWI (political)
Franz Ferdinand, French revenge on Germany, alliances
Causes of WWI (intellectual)
Pan Slavism
Causes of WWI (geographic)
Alsace and Lorraine, Russia=warm water port
Triple alliance
Germany doesn’t want a two-front war
Schlieffen Plan
Germany fighting France and Russia at the same time, led to Britain declaring war on Germany
Triple entente
GB, France, Russia
machine gun, submarines, trench warfare, rapid firing artillery, poison gas, the airplane, the tank
Compare the Western front to the Eastern Front
Western: trench warfare, many die, moved little, smaller
Eastern: no trench, much larger, revolutions in Russia
Total war, Industrial war
Women in the workforce -Women do man’s jobs – discover independence and freedom – want political action
War in Africa
native troops with European officers
Signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Litovsk Took Russia out of World War I
Germans can transfer troops to the western front
US policy of isolation
refuses to enter War
Unrestricted submarine warfare
U – boats- causes USA to enter war
Zimmerman telegram
Germany telling Mexico to invade to USA to get back land, intercepted by Britain
Germans sink American ocean liner
\”The Big Four\”
Orlando (Italy), Lloyd George (GB), Clemenceau (France), Wilson (United States)
Treaty of Versailles – Guilt clause, reparations, loss of territory
Germany admits to faults but says they are not solely to blame, pay reparations, give colonies to GB, France, and Japan, loose Alsace and Lorraine
Wilson 14 points
declared that post WWI would be peaceful (Wilson)
League of Nations
US never joined
Mandate System
colonialism in the Middle East
Arab revolt
British promise prince of Mecca a kingdom (Hejaz) of his own if they revolt against Turks – did not affect struggle in Europe but contributed to end of the Ottoman
Young Turks
conspiring to force a constitution on the Sultan, alienated other anti-Ottoman groups by advocating centralized rule and the Turkification of ethnic minorities
Mustapha Kemal
first president of Turkey
Modernize – Westernize
Not independent nations – Administered by Great Britain and France.
Zionism – Theodore Herzl
wanted to return to their ancestral homeland in Palestine
Balfour Declaration
declared Palestine the homeland for the Jews without damaging the civil rights of the non Jews in Palestine
in Europe of Imperialism of Africa + Asia (cause)
glorification of war and military
desire for people of common ethnic background for self rule and district atonal borders
keep \”balance of power\” (instead increased tension)
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entent
Great Britain, France, Russia
Immediate Events Leading up to the War
-1908: Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia
-Serbians had a strong ambition to create Pan Slavic state
-Serbia and Black Hand terrorist group to promote Pan Slavism
-Archduke Franz Ferdinand
-AH declares war on Serbia, Russia on AH and Germany (to defend Slavs)
-alliances come to defense of allies
Trench Warfare
miles of ditches dug to provide cover for soldiers in between series of bombardments and attacks on the enemy
backs out of Triple Alliance when the allies promised lands from Austria after the war
Central Powers
Germany joined by Bulgaria and Ottomans
unmoving for 2 years on Western front
need to draft soldiers after after heavy losses of life
used by countries to boost morale (showed their country winning the war)
Bolshevik Revolution
-lead by Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin
-won support of peasants (Peace, Bread and Land)
-inspired by Marx (Communist Manifesto)
-seized control of communications, transportation, ever gym banks and industries
Treaty of Versailles (2)
-Austria and Hungary separated
-Czechoslovakia was created
-Yugoslavia created
-Romania and Poland Enlarged
-Ott Empire looses non-Turkish territory
-Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia carved from Russian Territories
Overall Results
-10 million deaths (soldiers)
-millions of civilian casualties from famine and disease
-unresolved problems of hatred and jealousy
-new technology heightened dangers and devastation of war
-Global use of propaganda to gain support from people
Casualties of War
-deaths, wounded, captured, MIA
-loss of culture and generation
-shell shock

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