AP World History: 1450-1750: Global Interactions

Flashcard maker : Richard Lattimore
Akbar the Great
Akbar, known as Akbar the Great, was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India
Cannons
The military potential of the cannon was effectively demonstrated by the Ottoman Turks when they
used them to destroy Constantinople’s previously impregnable walls in 1453. All cannons were very
difficult to move, extremely inaccurate, and took a long time to reload and fire. As a result they were
fairly ineffective for land warfare, aside from sieges. They did prove, however, to be more effective at
sea. Cannons mounted on ships helped to give Western European ships a significant military
advantage of any of their competition.
Catherine the Great
Catherine II: empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
Catholic Reformation
The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War, which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation.
Christianity in Asia
generally taken by Portuguese missionaries trying to settle in new territories; try to relate to native beliefs of Buddhism; generally unsuccessful in conversion partially due to resistance of local population, or official resistance of native governments because of threats to imperial power system (i.e. Son of Heaven, Imperial Power) given by local religion
Christopher Columbus
Columbus: Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Circumnavigaion
to sail around the world–completed by Magellan’s crew following his death
Colonization
the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies; \”the British colonization of America\”–movement of your people to a new area that is under your governance and control
Counter Reformation
The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War, which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation.
Creole (criollos)
a descendant of Spanish or other European settlers in the Caribbean or Central or South America.
Devshirme
Devşirme was chiefly the practice by which the Ottoman Empire took boys from their Christian families, who were then converted to Islam with the primary objective of selecting and training the ablest children for leadership positions, either as military leaders or as high administrators to serve
Divine Right
The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
Dutch East India Trading Company
United East Indian Company, referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Encomienda System
a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
English Bill of Rights
The 1689 English Bill of Rights was a British Law, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1689 that declared the rights and liberties of the people and settling the succession in William and Mary following the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world (1480-1521)
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Fur Trade
mainly in French North America and Russia; create commercial economy based on capturing of animals and selling furs; luxury goods in Europe and Asia; builds economy not based on farming; leads to some conflict with natives but also participation in trade by natives in some regions
Ghazis
(often as an honorific title) a Muslim fighter against non-Muslims; often used to describe the military forces of the Ottoman Turk Janissary armies
Glorious Revolution
English Revolution: the revolution against James II; there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland (1688-1689)
Guyenberg’s Printing Press
The printing press was introduced to the West in the Holy Roman Empire by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440. Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, devised a hand mould to create metal movable type, and adapted screw presses and other existing technologies, to create a printing system. The mechanization of bookmaking led to the first mass production of books in Europe
Hacienda
(in Spanish-speaking regions) a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house.
Henry VIII
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France.
Hernán Cortés
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Huguenots
The Huguenots were French Protestants. The tide of the Reformation reached France early in the sixteenth century and was part of the religious and political fomentation of the times.
Humanism
enaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation.
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Janissary
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan, Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Jesuit Order
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
John Calvin
Calvin: Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Louis XIV
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death. Wikipedia
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci, S.J. was an Italian Jesuit priest, and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th-18th centuries. His current title is Servant of God.
Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed II or Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire twice, first for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481; known for conquering Constantinople and changing name to Istanbul
Parliment
Although some restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, it is also commonly used to describe the legislature in presidential systems, even where it is not in the official name.
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 inOsnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. Leads to less power in the German states and central Europe
Peninsulares
In the colonial caste system of Spanish America and Spanish Philippines, a peninsular was a Spanish- born Spaniard or mainland Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies
Peter the Great
Peter the Great: czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government; he extended his territories in the Baltic and founded St. Petersburg (1682-1725)
Plantation Economy
A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income
Potosi Silver Mine
The silver was taken by llama and mule train to the Pacific coast, shipped north to Panama City, carried by mule train across the isthmus of Panama to Nombre de Dios or Portobelo whence it was taken to Spain on the Spanish treasure fleets.
Prince Henry of Portugal
Infante Henry, Duke of Viseu, better known as Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries in total. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents.
Protestant Reformation
Reformation: a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches; major leaders–Martin Luther, John Calvin, King Henry VIII of England; results in the movement of people to new regions due to persecution and conflicts within nations in Europe
Renaissance
is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age.
Samurai Revolts
series of conflicts between the Samurai and leaders of Japan over the issues of power and salaried samurai and standing armies
Shah Jahan
Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)
Silver Mining
Mines found mainly by Spanish in South America; leads to increase in Spanish wealth; Asian nations desire silver for creation of currency leading to the Westerners having a desired product
Son of Heaven
reinforce belief that the emperor is the human being designated by heavenly powers to maintain order on the earth
Süleyman the Magnificent
Suleiman I, known as \”the Magnificent\” in the West and \”Kanuni\” or \”Lawgiver\” in the East, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566
Táino
Original Native American inhabitants encountered by Columbus in the Caribbean; due to darker skin coloring believed that he was in India; many were killed due to disease and forced labor
Taj Mahal
Widely recognized as the \”Jewel of Muslim art in India\”; Built in Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan as a tomb and mosque; Regarded by many as finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman, Turkish, and Indian architectures styles; Used a labor force of twenty thousand workers from throughout the Mughal Empire
Thirty Years’ War
The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history
Tokugawa Iesyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868
Tokugawa Shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu and the Edo bakufu, was a feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1600 and 1868. The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan
Vasco Da Gama
D. Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
Versailles
Versailles: a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles; symbol of the French crown and power of the French kings as absolute rulers
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England’s national poet, and the \”Bard of Avon\”.
Zheng He
Zheng He, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui-Chinese court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433

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