AP World History Period 3 Essay

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Black death
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the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
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Bushido
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the code of honor and morals developed by the Japanese samurai.
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Caliphate
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the era of Islam’s ascendancy from the death of Mohammed until the 13th century; some Moslems still maintain that the Moslem world must always have a calif as head of the community; “their goal was to reestablish the Caliphate”
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Chinampa
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Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
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Chivalry
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THE QUALITIES IDEALIZED BY KNIGHTHOOD SUCH AS BRAVERY AND GALLANTRY TOWARD WOMEN
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Christendom
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the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia)
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Civil Service exam system
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Test that everyone had to take. Allowed peasants and others to move up in society
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Crusade
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1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
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Dar al-Islam
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area where Muslims are in majority
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Entrepot
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A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
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Feudalism
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A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
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Fiefs
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Land was given in exchange for protection; lords lived off the surplus crops of their vassals
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Gentry
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In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel
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Grand canal in China
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the longest canal or artificial river in the world; it is a famous tourist destination.
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Great warming period
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The period from about 1000 to 1400 in which global temperatures are thought to have been a few degrees warmer than those of the preceding and following periods. The climatic effects of this period were confined primarily to Europe and North America. The period following the Medieval Warm Period is known as the Little Ice Age.
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Griots
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Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
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Guilds
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Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
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Hajj
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A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
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Hanseatic League
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An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
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Khan
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A Mongol ruler
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Kow tow
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kneeling 3x and bowing head to the floor each time then presenting gifts to the emperor in return for land; similar to the tribute system
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Little ice age
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A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
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Manorialism
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An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
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Mit’a
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Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
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Neoconfucianism
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This religious, political, and social movement encouraged a return to Confucian values as a way to strengthen society and the state. It became an official state belief system during the Song dynasty as a result of an anti-Buddhism campaign and the increasing Mongol threat. _______ incorporated Buddhist ideas, combining them with a Confucian emphasis on traditional family rituals and gender roles. It also placed value on the civil service exam.
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Nobility
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A high-ranking social class
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Papacy
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The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
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Quipu
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An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
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Samurai
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Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land.
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Serfs
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Men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord’s land in exchange for protection.
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Sharia
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Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
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Shia
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a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed’s son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
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Southernization
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Developments that were first made in Southern Asia and then spread to other places through trade and conquest
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Sufi
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A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
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Sultan
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“overlord” or “one with power”; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire
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Sunni
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A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
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Swahili
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A Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries
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Tax farming
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A government’s use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount. (p. 334)
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Terraces
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steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming
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Synthesized
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made by bringing together different elements
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Tribute collection
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the collection of tributes by lords

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