AP World History Exam Study Guide

Civilization
An ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits.

Foragers
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.

Cuneiform
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.

History
The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices.

City-state
A small independent state consisting of urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory.

Culture
Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression. Material culture refers to physical objects, such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts. Culture also includes arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology.

Agricultural Revolution/Neolithic Revolution-When?
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between 8000 and 2000 B.C.E., independently in various parts of the world. This also includes the domestication of plants and animals.

Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.

Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution (s). It follows the Paleolithic period.

Mohenjo-Darro
Largest of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River in contemporary Pakistan. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large scale of construction , the orderly grid for streets, and the standardization of building materials are evidence of central planning.

Name the 4 river valleys where civilization began.
1) Mesopotamia, 2) Egypt, 3) Pakistan, 4) northern China

What are the characteristics of civilization?
1) Cities that serve as administrative centers, 2) a political system based on control of defined territory, 3) specialization, 4) status based on wealth, 5) monumental buildings, 6) a writing system, 7) long distance trade, and 8) major advancements in science and art.

Loess
A fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because it is not compacted, it can be worked with a simple digging stick, but it leaves the region vulnerable to devastating earthquakes.

Daoism
Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring States Period with Laozi. It offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. They believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or “path” of nature.

Legalism
An authoritarian political philosophy that came to be called ____. These thinkers believe human nature is essentially wicked and that people behave in an orderly fashion only if compelled by strict laws and harsh punishments.

Confucius
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Konzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.

Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the rule of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.

Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1045 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.

Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, they vied with New Kingdom Egypt for control of Syria-Palestine before falling to unidentified attackers ca. 1200 B.C.E.

Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (r. 1473-1458 B.C.E.). She dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly northeast Sudan or Eretria), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name and image were frequently defaced.

Akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.) He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. The Amarna letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspondence with subjects and neighbors.

Ramesses II
A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.

Minoan
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The _______ engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.

Mycenae
Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer’s epic poems _____ was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. Contemporary archaeologists call the complex Greek society of the second millennium B.C.E. “Mycenaean.”

Library at Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the 7th-centry B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. The many tablets unearthed by archaeologists constitute one of the most important sources of present-day knowledge of the long literary tradition of Mesopotamia.

Assyrians
Their kings were viewed as both gods and kings and the center of the universe. They were known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries. They used iron weapons, cavalry, couriers, signal fires, and spy networks as well as scare tactics and mass deportation to conquer others.Their control was more effective at the core and less effective in the peripheral parts of the empire. They consisted of free, land-owning citizens, farmers and artisans, and slaves. They preserved the knowledge inherited from older Mesopotamian societies and made original contributions to mathematics and astronomy. They maintained libraries that were attached to temples in the cities, such as the Library of Ashurbanipal in Ninevah.

Hebrews
These people were nomadic herders and caravan drivers who developed a complex sedentary agricultural civilization. As they did so, their cult of a desert god evolved into an influential monotheistic religion. They were known by various names: Canaan, Israel, Palestine; Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews.

Torah/Hebrew Bible
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the 5th century B.C.E. and reflects the concerns and views of this group.

Solomon
The Israelite monarchy reached the height of its power in King ____’s reign (David’s son), who forged alliances and sponsored trade with distant lands. He also expanded the bureaucracy and the army, and built the first temple in Jerusalem.

Monotheism
Belief in the existence of a single divine entity. Some scholars cite the devotion of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten to Aten (sun-disk) and his suppression of traditional gods as the earliest instance. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam.

Diaspora
A Greek word meaning “dispersal,” used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughout the world.

Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the 1st millennium B.C.E. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, these merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged in widespread commerce, and founded Carthage and other colonies in the western Mediterranean.

Olmecs
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between 1200-400 B.C.E., the ____ people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. They had great cultural influence on later Mesoamerican societies, passing on artistic styles, religious imagery, sophisticated astronomical observation for the construction of calendars, and a ritual ball game.

Satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. _____ in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.

Zoroastrianism
a religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.

Polis
The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. Of the hundreds of city-states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by Greeks, some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and the Assembly.

Hoplite
Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces.

Tyrant
The term the Greeks used to describe someone who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community. ____ appeared in many Greek city-states in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E., often taking advantage of the disaffection of the emerging middle class and, by weakening the old elite, unwittingly contributing to the evolution of democracy.

Democracy
system of government in which all ‘citizens’ (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.

Herodotus
Heir to the technique of historia-‘investigation’-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents and chronicled the wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing.

Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war.

Peloponnesian War
A protracted (431-404 B.C.E.) and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.

Socrates
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state.

Plato
Student of Socrates. He distrusted democracy. He set up a school called the Academy. He emphasized the importance of reason. He wrote Republic, a book about an ideal state that would regulate every aspect of life. He believed men surpassed women mentally and physically, but some women surpassed men and that talented women should be educated to serve the state.

Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.

Hellenistic Age
Historians’ term for the era, usually dated 323-30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the seventh century C.E.

Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.

Augustus/Octavian
Founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31 BCE and 14 CE he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire.

Pax Romana
Literally, “Roman peace,” it connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas.

Romanization
The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. The Roman government did not actively seek to Romanize the subject peoples, but indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of the political and economic advantages that it brought, as well as the allure of Roman success.

Jesus
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers, he became the central figure in Christianity, a belief system that developed in the centuries after his death

Third-Century Crisis
Historians’ term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.: frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy. After 284 C.E. Diocletian restored order by making fundamental changes.

Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.

Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life-size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated.

Han
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.

Gentry
In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. Respected for their education and expertise, these officials became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past. The term also denotes the class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy.

Monsoon
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling landmasses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and predictable winds have been long ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.

Varna
Four major social divisions in Indian history: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/adminstrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class. Within the system of varna are many jati, regional groups of people who have a common occupational sphere and who marry, eat, and generally interact with other members of their group.

Buddha
(563-483 B.C.E.) An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming “enlightened” He enunciated the principles of Buddhism. This doctrine evolved and spread throughout India and to Southeast, East, Central Asia.

Theravada
“Way of the Elders” branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Theravada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual’s search for enlightenment.

Mahayana
“Great Vehicle” branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.

Gupta Empire
(320-550 C.E.) A powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.

Theater-state
Historians’ term for a state that acquires prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract and bind subjects to the center. Examples include the Gupta Empire in India and Srivijaya in Southeast Asia.

Hinduism
A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since the antiquity. It has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and South Indian religious concepts and practices. It spread along the trade routes to Southeast Asia.

Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (R. 273-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.

Bhagavad-Gita
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.

Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature.

Silk Road
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.

Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandra Gupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes.

Indian Ocean Maritime System
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia.

Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharn Africa across the Sahara.

Bantu
Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages.

Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

Muhammad
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.

Muslim
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who “submits” (in Arabic, Islam means “submission”) to the will of God.

Caliphate
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire.

Quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.

Shi’ites (Shi’a)
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali. Shi’ism is the state religion of Iran.

Sunnis
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.

What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
1) avowal that there is only one god and Muhammed is his messenger, 2) prayer five times a day, 3) fasting during the lunar month of Ramadan, 4) paying alms, and 5) making the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime.

Charlemagne
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.

Medieval
Literally “middle age,” a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance.

Byzantine Empire
Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from an early name for Constantinople, the capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.

Schism
A formal split within a religious community. See Great Western Schism.

Manor
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord’s residence (_____ house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.

Serf
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord’s property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some _____ worked as artisans and in factories; ____ was not abolished there until 1861.

Vassal
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord.

Papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.

Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.

Investiture Controversy
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.

Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The ______ brought an end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.

Tang Empire
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang’an.

Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,771-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.

Bubonic Plague/Great Pandemic/Black Death
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of preventing its spread, major outbreaks have created crises in many parts of the world. An outbreak spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons; for example, one-third of Europe’s population was killed from it.

Song Empire/Technological Advancements
Empire in central and southern China (960-1126) while the Liao people controlled the north. Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the “Southern Song”) while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics. A technological advancement was a huge, chain-driven mechanical clock that told the time, day of the month, and indicated the movements of the moon and certain stars and planets. They also improved the compass, introduced the sternpost rudder and watertight bulkheads, and they developed and used gunpowder weapons in their wars.

Junk
A very large flat-bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang, Ming, and Song Empires, specially designed for a long-distance commercial travel.

Fujiwara
An aristocratic family that dominated the Japanese imperial court between the ninth and twelfth centuries.

Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan’s decentralized military governments.

Chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.

Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.

Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.

Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.

Khipu
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information.

Kiva
Constructed by the Anasazi and were underground buildings in the Arizona/New Mexico/Colorado/Utah region around 450-750 C.E. They were centers of culture: weaving, pottery, and religious rituals.

Genghis Khan
The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the “oceanic” or “universal” leader. ______ ______ was the founder of the Mongol Empire.

Marco Polo
Venetian merchant who lived in China for over 20 years working for Kubailai Khan then returned to Italy and wrote a book about his travels that inspired the Europeans to find easier trade routes to Asia to reach the riches found there.

Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.

Nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.

Timur
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols’ Jagadai Khanate; _____ through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India.

Nasir al-Din Tusi
Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.

Ivan III
Prince of Moscow who ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of tsar.

Tsar/Czar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505).

Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the ______ Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.

Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire.

Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The _____ emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of the _____ saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.

Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.

Ibn Battuda
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.

Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Mansa Kankan Musa and Timbuktu.)

Mansa Kan Kan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire’s reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.

Dhow
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.

Urdu
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.

Humanists
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.

Printing Press
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450. See also movable type.

New Monarchies
Historians’ term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits.

Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a “rebirth” of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern (trans-Alpine) Renaissance, from roughly the early fifteenth to early seventeenth century.

Latin West
Historians’ name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 1000-1500.

Reconquista (reconquest of Iberia)
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.

Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.

Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon.

Guild
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests. ______ were also important in other societies, such as the Ottoman and Safavid Empires.

Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.

Conquistadors
Early sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru.

Indulgence
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther’s protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.

Protestant Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the “protesters” forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.

Christopher Columbus
Genoese mariner who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, establishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization.

Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.

Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533.

Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.

Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.

Witch-hunt
The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Bourgeoisie
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.

Enlightenment
A philosophical belief system in eighteenth-century Europe that claimed that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.

Scientific Revolution
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.

John Locke
An English political philosopher who argued that governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property and that the people had a right to revel when a monarch violated these natural rights. His theory began with the assumption that individual rights were the foundation of civil government. (Natural Rights and Consent of the Governed)

Voltaire
Enlightenment thinker who wrote the Most Famous Philosophe. He was one of the Enlightenment’s most critical intellects and great celebrities and believed that Europe’s monarchs were likely agents of political and economic reform.

Montesquieu
Enlightenment thinker who devised the idea of Separation of Powers.

Jean Jacque Rousseau
A radical Enlightenment thinker who published The Social Contract, which asserted that the will of the people was sacred and that the legitimacy of monarchs depended on the consent of the people. He envisioned people acting collectively as a result of shared historical experience.

Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixtieth- and seventeenth-century Spain.

Martin Luther- beliefs and definition, how promoted
German monk who challenged the pope on the issue of indulgences and other practices he considered corrupt or not Christian. He began the Protestant Reformation, arguing that salvation could be by faith alone, that Christian belief could be based only on the Bible and on Christian tradition.

John Calvin
The Protestant leader who argued that salvation was God’s gift to those who were predestined and that Christian congregations should be self-governing and stress simplicity in life and worship.

Ignatius Loyola
This Spanish nobleman created a new religious order, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), in 1540. Well-educated Jesuits helped stem the Protestant tide by their teaching and preaching, and they gained converts through overseas missions.

Galileo Galilei
Was put under house arrest by the Inquisition for supporting Heliocentric Theory. He built a telescope to observe the universe more closely.

Isaac Newton
During the Scientific Revolution, this mathematician came up with the Law of Gravity, showing why the planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits. He also helped develop calculus.

Living standards for peasants from 1500-1700
Condition of average person in Western Europe declined. New World crops (corn and potatoes) helped Western European peasants avoid starvation. Deforestation had particularly severe effects on the rural poor, who had relied on free access to forests for wood, building materials, nuts and berries, and wild game. Oppressed by economic and environmental trends, peasants and laborers generally lived in poverty, and their misery often provoked rebellion.

Changing Marriage Patterns
In contrast to rest of world, young European men and women in early modern Europe often chose own spouses (romantic marriage), but privileged families were more likely to arrange marriages than poor families. Europeans also married later than other cultures: Europeans married in their twenties while most others were married as teens.

Peace of Augsburg
In 1555, the ____ was signed, ending the German Wars of religion and giving German princes the right to choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism as the religion of their kingdoms.

Edict Nantes, who issued, who revoked, and the impact
It was an embrace of a union of church and state by which Henry IV, his son King Louis XII, and his grandson King Louis XIV supported the Catholic Church. Then when Louis XIV entered the picture more, he revoked ____ by which his grandfather had granted religious freedom to his Protestant supporters in 1598.

English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell
(1642-1649) A conflict over royal versus parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I’s arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and and the English Bill of Rights of 1689, ensured that England would be a constitutional monarchy.Cromwell expanded England’s presence overseas and emposed firm control over Ireland and Scotland, he was unwilling to share with Parliament.

The impact from the wars of early modern Europe
was a military revolution in which cannon, muskets, and commoner foot soldiers became the mainstays of European armies. Armies grew in size, and most European states maintained standing armies (except England, which maintained a standing navy).

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