AP World History Chapter 17

Flashcard maker : Sonia Kelly
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason
Northern Renaissance
the movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones; , Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
European style family
Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
Protestantism
the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
Anglican church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
edict of Nantes
1598 – Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg’s, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
witchcraft persecution
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.
Scientific Revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
William Harvey
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Rene Descartes
French philosopher and mathematician
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
absolute monarchy
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715
Glorious Revolution
the revolution against James II
parliamentary monarchy
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for ‘Don Quixote’ which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
social sciences
Related disciplines that study various aspects of human social behavior
John Kay
1733, a Brit who invented the fly shuttle. Made it possible for one person instead of two to operate a loom in textile manufacturing. It increased the output of woven material and therefore also the demand for yarn.
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Marianne Ehrmann
Used her journal to suggest that men might be partly to blame for women’s lowly position.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
Denis Diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Boccaccio
Italian poet (born in France) (1313-1375)
Lutheranism
teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Rabelias
ridiculed institutions (such as clergy) through use of gross humor
witchcraft
the art of sorcery
Diderot’s Encyclopedia
spread Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over the world
liberty and equality
Two ideas that fueled revolution in America and Europe. It was a call for individual human rights

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