AP World History- Chapter 1 Vocab

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Hunting and gathering
means of obtaining subsistence by humans before the mastery of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of tribal social organization
Civilization
societies with reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of nonfarming elites, along with merchant and manufacturing groups
Paleolithic
the OLD STONE AGE ending in 12,000 B.C.E.; typified by use of evolving stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence
Neolithic
the NEW STONE AGE between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished
Nomads
cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as \”barbarian\” by civilized societies
Culture
combinations of ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction
Homo Sapiens
the species of humanity that emerged as most successful at the end of the Paleolithic
Agrarian revolution
occurred between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture
Pastoralism
a nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies
Catal Huyuk
early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification
Bronze Age
from 4000 to 3000 B.C.E.; increased use of plow, metalworking, development of wheeled vehicles, writing
Mesopotamia
literally \”between the rivers\”; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys
Potter’s wheel
a technological advance in pottery making; invented circa 6000 B.C.E.; encouraged faster and higher-quality ceramic pottery products
Sumerians
people who migrated into Mesopotamia circa 4000 B.C.E.; created the first civilization within the region; organized area into city-states
Cuneiform
a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets
City-state
a form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilization; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king
Ziggurats
massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple connections
Babylonian Empire
unified all of Mesopotamia circa 1800 B.C.E.; collapsed due to foreign invasion circa 1600 B.C.E.
Hammurabi
the most important Babylonian ruler; responsible for codification of the law
Pharaoh
the term used to denote the kings of ancient Egypt; the term, \”great house\” refers to the palace of the pharaohs
Pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs
Hieroglyphs
form of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian cuneiform
Kush
african state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile circa 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
Monotheism
the exclusive worship of one god; introduced by Jews into Middle Eastern civilization
Phoenicians
seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
major urban complexes of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern
Aryans
indo-european nomadic, warlike, pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization
Huanghe (Yellow) River Basin
site of the development of sedentary agriculture in China
Shang
1st Chinese dynasty
Oracles
shamans or priests in Chinese society who foretold the future through interpreting animal bones cracked by heat; inscriptions on bones led to Chinese writing
Ideographic writing
pictograph characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing

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