AP World History chap 20

Flashcard maker : Christine Brunetti
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
-goals included: reform the church through education, spread the Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism; Members of the catholic religious order the society of Jesus – help transformation of Japanese religion to Christianity even though it was opposed by the elite as foreign and disruptive
Dutch east India Company
(VOC) major trade in Indian Ocean – attempted to trade with china and succeeded by acknowledging emperor superiority.
East India Company of England
British and other European traders with Qing through Canton , wanted to change restriction on trading in \”canton System\” for more profit- British lacked exports to china
Kowtow
a former Chinese custom of touching the ground with the forehead as a sign of respect or submission
Tsar (Czar)
since 1547 titles for rulers of Russia – from title of Caesar ( Rome)
Boyars
The Russian aristocracy created their individual leadership and representation
Serfs
due to foreign warfare the down grade of economy led to the increase in peasant populations -peasants became serfs to landowners as hereditary slaves as workers for land not the owner.
\”China\”
southern Manchuria and the area dominated by early Ming and Early Korea-This was eventually taken over by Qing-had interactions with Russians( Amur river)-Manchuria’s-at canton (European traders/ EIC)
Dalai Lama
Universal teacher under Tibetan Buddhism -united the Mongolians religiously -> ruled by Galdan (1600\”s) as Manchu in military power.
Variolation
the spread of disease in Beijing of small pox influence by Christian missionaries learning of anatomy – led to vaccinations in Europe.
Cha
The Northern China names for tea, – widely exported to Portuguese and western Europe states, in competition with coffee and chocolate – many profitable possibilities with tea for Chinese.
Macartney Mission
represented the EIC and British interest in changing Qing trade system (Canton System) – George Macartney \”Tribute emissary\”-turned down by the stubborn 80 year old Qing ruler.
Shogunate
leader of Japan ( political and military wise)
Samurai
an army of warriors under Daimyo ( a warlord in Japan)
Seppuku
the honorable ritual suicide of a samurai ( a young lord committed seppuku for drawing his sword in court : Forty-seven Ronin)
Francis Xavier
: a missionary in hopes to convert Japan to Catholicism and eventually gain access to china – died (2 years late) in 1552- great impact on Japan religion.
Ivan IV ( \”The Terrible\” )
(1533-1584) expanded Russia eastward and northern into Siberia and Amur River where they came in contact with Galdan’s Mongols.
Mikhail Romanov
representation of the boyar and tried to settle between Turkic people of central Asia , and Christians
Cossacks
referred to divers populations of different ways of living on eastern steppes of people who provided strong military effort
Peter the Great
Peter the great ( 1689-1775) great tsar that modernized Russia by developing ways of western Europe
Manchus
from Manchuria in North eastern Asia
Li Zicheng
led rebellion that eventually took over Beijing
Kangxi
the well educated progressive leader of the Qing dynasty that increased superiority on a world base level
Tokugawa Ieyasu
ended japans civil wars by creating Tokugawa shogunate.
Siberia
the north eastern area later dominate by Russia with thick forests and center for fur trade
Muscovy
center of the Russian empire that surrounds Moscow
St. Petersburg
the city created in Peter the greats reign after the Great Northern War
Ming Empire
known for porcelain trade by Europeans, had conflicting issues with Manchu and southern rebellions, eventually taken over by the Qing Empire.
Qing Empire
the empire that took over the Ming and reestablished important boundaries. In this era the Chinese society grew as intellectuals even though limited trade led to its down fall
Tokugawa Shogunate
a new form of political and military authority that re-united Ming china with a blend of samurai modern rules with former Confucian analects.
Edo
present day Japan , the administrative center for the Tokugawa shogunate that connected to the main trading center Kyoto.
Great Northern War
The war between Russia and Siberia at the Baltic sea, this defined Russia as an official superior power with defined borders.
Treaty of Kiakhta
Wars/Treaties/Events:Along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), this regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid nineteenth century
Treaty of Nerchinsk
in 1689, it was the first treaty between russia and china. the russians gave up the area south of the amur river and east of the mouth of the amur river but kept the area between the amur river and lake baikal in exchange for permission to trade with china and china’s recognition of the russian empire
\”Closing\” of Japan
closed countru: nagaski only port, only dutch allowed because they were interested in nothing but trade, destroyed navy and forbade travel
\”Forty-Seven Ronin\” incident
group of Japanese samurai who avenged the disgrace and suicide of their master, Lord Asano, in 1703 by assassinating Lord Kira, the official responsible for his death. After a year of debate at all levels of society, the ronin (masterless samurai) committed suicide as they had been ordered. They have since been regarded as great cultural heroes who embody the virtue of loyalty and are celebrated in traditional tales and a number of works of art

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