AP World History Ch. 4 Vocab

Flashcard maker : Robert Lollar
cyrus the great
(c. 576 or 590-529 B.C.E.); founded persian empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires
zoroastrianism
persian religion that saw material existence as a battle between the forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; a last judgment decided the eternal fate of each person
hellenism
culture derived from the greek civilization that flourished between 800 and 400 B.C.E.
hellenistic culture
culture associated with the spread of greek influences and intermixture with other cultures as a result of macedonian conquests
Iliad and odyssey
greek epic poems attributed to homer; defined relations of gods and humans that shaped greek mythology
polis
city-state form of government typical of greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
socrates
athenian philosopher of late 5th century B.C.E.; condemmed to death for \”corrupting\” minds of athenian young; usually seen as the father of western philosophy
direct democracy
literally, rule of the people-in athens it meant all free male citizens; all decisions emanated from the popular assembly without intermediation of elected representatives
pericles
athenian political leader during 5th century B.C.E.; guided development of athenian empire
olympic games
one of the panhellenic-rituals observed by all greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
persian wars
5th century B.C.E. wars between the persian empire and greek city-states; greek victories allowed greek civilization to define identity
peloponnesian war
war from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between athens and sparta for domination in greece; the spartans won but failed to achieve political unification in greece
macedon
kingdom of northern greece; originally loosely organized under kings; became centralized under philip II; conquered greek city-states
philip II
ruled macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; conquered greece
alexander the great
(r. 336 – 323 B.C.E.); son and successor of philip II; conquered persian empire and advanced to borders of India; attempted to combine greek and persian culture
alexandria
egyptian city; founded 334 B.C.E.; one of many \”alexandrias\” founded by alexander the great
socrates
(b. 465 B.C.E.); athenian philosopher; usually seen as the father of western philosophy
aristotle
greek philosopher; teacher of alexander, taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in material world
stoics
hellenistic philosophers; they emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
sophocles
greek writer of tragedies; author of oedipus rex
doric, ionic, corinthian
three distinct styles of hellenic architecture; listed in order of increasing ornate quality
consuls
two chief executives of the roman republic; elected annually by the assembly dominated by the aristocracy
carthage
founded by the phoenicians in tunisia; became a major empire in the western mediterranean; fought the punic wars with rome for mediterranean dominance; defeated and destroyed by the romans
punic wars
three wars (264-146 B.C.E.) between rome and the carthaginians; saw the transformation of rome from a land to a sea power
hannibal
carthaginian general during the second punic war; invaded italy but failed to conquer rome
republic
the balanced political system of rome from circa 510 to 47 B.C.E.; featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and popular assemblies
julius caesar
general responsible for the conquest of gaul; brought army back to rome and overthrew republic; assassinated in B.C.E. by conservative senators
octavian
later took name of augustus; julius caesar’s grandnephew and adopted son; defeated conservative senators after caesar’s assassination; became first roman emperor
cicero
conservative senator and stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day
vergil
a great roman epic poet during the golden age of latin literature; author of the aeneid

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