AP World History: An Essential Coursebook, 2nd Edition

Flashcard maker : Viola Marenco
Nuclear family
Gerhard Kremer
Mapmaking is a skill that became well-developed during much earlier times, but the Mercator projection was a new one, developed during the 16th century by this man, known as \”Mercator\” (the merchant) because his maps were tailored to aid European ocean traders.
East India Company
Companies such as this one were able to put together the largest businesses in history to that point, and often made a great deal of money for stockholders.
European governments (especially Britain and the Netherlands) also believed in this, or the responsibility of government to promote the state’s economy to improve tax revenues and limit imports to prevent profits from going to outsiders. Implies more government control than capitalism, but both emphasize individual to a degree.
The Wealth of Nations
Capitalism was explained by Adam Smith in this book as an economic system controlled by an \”invisible hand\” – the natural law that defines the relationship between supply and demand.
The Cambridge Modern History Atlas
(1912) A map it contains shows the widespread holding of the Habsburg Family at the time of Charles V’s abdication of the Holy Roman Empire’s throne.
Charles V
All Holy Roman emperors had been Habsburgs since 1273, and this emperor dreamed of unifying all of these areas under his centralized control, which he failed to do. His son, Philip II, ruled Spain at the height of its power.
Holy Roman Empire
Its emperors had never had much political power before, and Charles V’s efforts were doomed to failure, partly because of religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics. The Habsburgs were Catholic, and Protestants did not want to see hem gain power, and Charles experienced strong opposition from the French King and the Ottoman sultan.
Ottoman Sultan
Strongly opposed Charles V from Istanbul.
House of Orange
Government in the Netherlands was decentralized, but this was highly influential.
Philip II
Charles V’s son, who ruled Spain at the height of its power.
Ferdinand + Isabelle
The kingdom had only been unified in the late 15th century by their marriage, which combined the two smaller kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. Not only sponsored voyages of Columbus, but they drove the last of the Muslim rulers from southern Spain with the conquest of Granada in 1492.
Christopher Columbus
Ferdinand and Isabelle sponsored his voyages to what was supposed to be the fastest route to India. Instead, he ended up discovering the New World when he landed on the Caribbean.
Conquered by Ferdinand and Isabelle in 1492, driving out last of Moors.
William + Mary
Charles I
\”L’ état c’ est moi\”
\”Sun King\”
Henry VIII
William the Conqueror
Queen Elizabeth I
New World
Old World
\”Theatre State\”

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