AP World History 7-3 and 7-4

Flashcard maker : David Dunn
Beginning of Christianity
started as faith practiced by small group of Jews in province Judaea- spread throughout Med.
-expansion throughout Med. world due to Constantine’s decision to support it in 313
Religion in Rome
-state encouraged worship of different Roman gods (that had Greek counterparts)
-officials often used tax money to support public cults (sometimes honoring a god and sometimes making god out of current or former princeps)
-cult deities: Isis (Egyptian goddess of dead-believed to cure the sick), Mithra (Iranian sun-god sent by Ahura Mazda to fight against evil, sacrificed bulls and believed souls of the dead descended into earth before going to heaven)
-people had obligation to worship these gods supported by the state, many worshiped in mystery cults (promised immortality and closer personal relationship w/ god)
-Jews- single god not depicted in images or paintings, would not worship Roman gods or former princeps- Roman gov. tolerated this (Jerusalem Temple- had scriptures, survived Roman conquest of Judaea in 63 BCE
-Dead Sea Scrolls (texts on leather, papyrus, and copper) showed diversity of beliefs among Jewish groups- mention Teacher of Righteousness who would bring salvation (Messiah)- many groups believed in this but disagreed on how to identify him)
-Jewish priests lived at temple to perform rituals during holy days (away from wives, no intercourse = pure state), not celibate unlike Manichaeans
Records of Christianity
-almost all records about early Christianity from before 100 CE written by a believer
-earliest sources about life and Jesus and most reliable are four gospels- written between 70 and 110- important to remember that these were written by followers, not outsiders (like sources about Buddha)
Jesus’ life
-born in Bethlehem around 4 BCE to wealthy Jewish family near Sea of Galilee- residents fished
-little said about life before 26 CE- John the Baptist (claimed to be a prophet, told Jews to go through one-time baptism to prepare for kingdom of God) baptized him in River Jordan
-in Greek baptism simply refers to washing in water or immersing- many ancient faiths believed in bathing in water to prepare believers for rituals (Jews believed that washing would cleanse someone of impurities, ex: when they touched a corpse, repeated washing as often as needed, several Jewish groups required converts undergo single bathing ritual before they could enter temple as Jews)
-28 and 29- public ministry in Galilee: repent and be baptized, illness = Satan’s presence, miracles of curing the sick- some skeptical, people converted b/c of them
-Jesus welcomed poor and oppressed- emphazied loving God and neighbor, talked of Messiah sent by God that would bring in a new age- followers believed he was the Messiah (Christ = having been anointed), gained followers b/c he promised salvation to everyone
-criticized abuses he saw- angered Jewish leaders- might have feared that he would lead Palestinians in revolt against Roman Rule- asked Pontius Pilate (Roman governor) to convict him for claiming to be king of the Jews and therefore be a political threat- 30 CE Pilate agreed to prevent disorder
-believed that on 3rd day Jesus was raised from the dead- atonement (died so believers can overcome death)
Early Church structure
-disciples created this
-created churches in Christian communities- led by bishops
-deacons and deaconesses below- authority position for women in the church
Paul
-early Christian leader
-from wealthy family of Roman citizens in Tarsus (what is now Turkey)
-turning point: Jesus appeared to him in vision around 38 CE as he was going to Damascus- converted
-church suspicious of him and said his experience not the same as knowing him personally- sent him to preach in Tarsus in 48 CE
Paul’s preaching
-originally focused on converting the Jewish groups in eastern half of Med.
-letters written in Greek and preaching spread Christianity, preached to wealthier/more prosperous people than Jesus had
-did not call for social reform and respected Roman empire- told audience to pay taxes
Summary of Paul’s sermon in Pisidian Antioch
expected Jews to be familiar with predictions about coming of prophets in OT, states that Jesus died so sins of believers could be forgiving, contrasts law of Moses w/ teachings of Jesus- law of Moses could not free from sins
Pliny the Younger
-not Christian
-provincial governor in part of present-day Turkey south of Black Sea between 111 and 113
-wrote to emperor Trajan how he should determine who was a Christian and who deserved punishment
-letter described description of impact of Christianity on local religious practice during time when it was banned, Pliny persecuted them but many officials did not
-troubled that they met regularly before dawn on specific day to chant verses about Christ, abstain from theft, robbery, and adultery, considered them a cult, said they are increasing number of people in temple- sacred rites which had declined being performed again, flesh of sacrificial victims is on sale everywhere, before then few could be found to buy it
Paul’s travels
-died in about 64
-Christian community in places he visited: Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece
-Peter headed Christian community in Rome
-Jewish uprising in Judaea in 66- Romans destroyed temple in 70, many Jews fled
-Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria became centers of the church (still banned, growing in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuries)
Spread of Christianity
-Jesus preached in Judaea
-Paul and other missionaries spread teachings to eastern Med.
-late 300s it spread throughout the Med., people going from Rome to Jerusalem and Egypt to visit earliest Christian monasteries
Issues in Rome
-Pax Romana ended in 3rd century
-226 Goths attacked northern border of Rome in region of Danube River, continued to be attacked by neighboring peoples- different rulers restructuring empire and shifted capital east
-made Christianity legal and offered gov. support of religion- spread even further
-Egeria seemed to travel fairly safely for an unaccompanied woman
-after 400- western half economy declining, east flourishing
-lost parts of empire and even city of Rome to barbarians, region of Med. continued to be cultural unit bound by Christianity and by Latin and Greek
Diocletian
-principate ended early in his reign
-increased army size by 1/3 so they could fight enemies (like the Sasanians- established in Iran in 224)
-260- Sasanians captured and humiliated Roman emperor Valerian- had him crouch down so emperor could step on his back and mount horse (1st time foreign army captured Roman emperor)
-emperor too large to govern effectively- divided it into eastern and western half- senior emperor and junior emperor for each half (tetrarchy- 4 emperors)
Constantine
-son of junior emperor Diocletian
-defeated each of other emperors in battle until he was only ruler of reunited empire
-330- established new capital 800 miles east of Rome at Byzantium (on the Bosphorus) to place himself near threatened frontiers- capital name became Constantinople
-at the time pop. of Byzantium was about 50,000- Rome had over 1 million
-dificult to control empire from Rome, and emperors of tetrachy had already established individual capitals outside Rome
-Constantinople located near Danube and Euphrates frontiers- more easily defended than Rome
-died in 337- 3 sons began fighting for control, last son died in 364- no ruler able to reunite empire for more than a few years after this
-395- emperor officially divided into western and eastern halves
Punishing Christians
-Diocletian in 303- ordered that scriptures be destroyed and churches torn down, all practicing Christians to be punished, thought they were a threat because they would not honor Roman gods or dead emperors
Constantine allowing Christianity
-311- defeated one of the other people who claimed the throne- vision of Apollo (sun god) and Roman numeral 30 (XXX)- thought he was chosen by Apollo to rule for next 30 years
-later started worshiping Christian God and Roman gods- biographer said he actually saw a Christian cross in vision
-ended persecution of Christians in 313- Edict of Milan- allowed them to practice Christianity
-Council of Nicaea- 325- Constantine summoned church leaders, created Nicene Creed (more meetings in centuries following)- excommunicated those who disagreed w/ beliefs
Theodosius I (last emperor who ruled over eastern and western halves)
-380- declared Christianity official religion of empire, next year banned worshiping pagan gods, gov. supported Christianity- different from Persians (could do own religions) and Macedon (tolerated Greek and local religions)
Pilgrimages (normally to Jerusalem)
-more popular as people could afford it
-Constantine’s mother went to Jerusalem and ordered shutting down pagan temples and building of Christian churches, sponsored excavation to find where Jesus had been crucified (tourist spot)
-new maps and guides show increased travel- some visual and some lists (when they did not have papyrus- used parchment- made by scraping hair from stretched skins of sheep, goats, or calves and then cleaning it)
-very large text on parchment- Peutinger Map- depicts the whole empire’s road system
Egeria’s travels
-first monasteries and nunneries forming in Egypt (Egeria traveling at this time- alternative form of Christian devotion- in order to travel had to go through uncomfortable and uncertain situations- showed faith, traveled alone mostly but in dangerous part of Egypt hired escort of armed soldiers, traveled by foot or 4-wheeled wagon pulled by mule)
-stayed in Jerusalem for 3 years, returned home through Constantinople
-took 25 day detour to do to Mesopotamia of Syria (modern day Edessa, Turkey) to visit holy marks, greeted warmly by bishop and took her on tour of city’s sites (received this kind of treatment- high in society)
-unsaid how journey ended- monk Valerius says she returned safely to Spain
North Africa
-center of Christianity by 4th century
-early 300s- Egyptian Christian started first monastic community- worked fields and prayed (before Christians in religious life had to live as hermits)-monastaries spread all over the Mediterranean
Christianity today
-declining in Med.
-increasing rapidly in Latin America, Africa, and Asia (3/4 of Christians will live in these areas by 2025)
-some more devout than others
-fastest growing groups in Latin America and Africa (esp. Brazil) are Pentecostals (believe Holy Spirit communicates directly by believers- can speak in tongues, receive prophecies, heal sick, and exorcise demons)
-Pentecostal group- Universal Church of the Kingdom of God- constructed copy of Sao Paolo of Solomon’s Temple- seats 10,000 people and cost $200 million-only 37 years old, Solomon’s Temple- built around 1000 BCE, destroyed in 587 BCE by Babylonians who resettled Jews- ended in 539 BCE by Cyrus
-Africa: 46% Christian, violent crashes between Christians and Muslims (competing for converts)
Aksum
-Christian center east of Egypt (what is now Ethiopia)
-rulers converted soon after Edict of Milan
-taxed trade from Egypt that went through Red Sea to India
-merchants exported ivory from Africa and imported frankincense and myrrh from Arabia- discovered Christians on voyages to med. and introduced religion to their area
-pre-Christian inscriptions mentioned local gods as well as Trinity
-Christians there looked to Egyptian church for leadership- first bishop in Aksum and successor received appointments from bishops in Egypt
-Stone Stele there- large stone monument- gives no hint that rulers who built them were Christian
Hippo/Annaba, Algeria
-Christian center west of Egypt
-Augustine there- book: The Confessions (told of him fathering child when not married and belonging to Manichaean order)
-one of first Christians who saw sexual activity as sinful- became celibate after converting, became bishop- influenced later Christians (esp. those in Roman church- priests and not just bishops must be celibate- made this the rule around 1100)
Germanic-speaking peoples
-defeating the weakened Roman army
-very powerful- includes Vandals, Visigoths, and Ostrogoths, and other groups- lived north and west of empire and spoke variety of languages in Germanic family (no writing)
-410- Visigoths came from east- sacked Rome, retreated
-430- Vandals attacked Hippo on North African coast, crossed Med., looted Rome in 455 (groups made up of different peoples)
-little archaeological evidence that there were distinct invasions- (Walter Goffart researching this) Goths and Vandals lived alongside Romans and adopted some of their customs, no large invasions, only leader belonged to these groups, followers were people with different customs- no real record left behind
-fierce warriors, little to defend- attack Roman frontier
Economic decline
-400s- especially in western half of empire (esp. Britain)
-before 400: villas, pottery, and coins
-after: no towns, villas, or coins
-Roman gov. short on money- created devalued coins that had less metal than indicated by face value (began to trade because they did not have coins)
-pottery wheel disappeared- ceramic quality less
-occurred in France and Germany as well as Britain
-east (Egypt, Syria, etc.) still thriving
-unsure of the CAUSE- possibly b/c of invasions by neighboring groups (mixed force, perceived as not Roman- barbarians {not always deragotary- Herodotus talked of achievements of Greeks and barbarians}-received share of loot but not paid)
-300s and 400s gov. taxed land and population- paying in grain- gov. having trouble paying army- army stopped fighting-made empire weaker
-some see damage in empire as cause but not main cause of Western empire’s decline- said they were functioning well, economy good, not trying incredibly hard to produce agricultural surplus (had never done this when they were prosperous), different areas had different products sold across empire
-invasions showed how effective economy was but also how fragile it was
-east prospered when they split
comparison to other civilizations
-sudden decline in Roman civ. like how Harappa and Maya disappeared suddenly- historians do not have documents explaining it, must weight different explanations- natural disaster, overcrowding, disease, etc.
Vandals
-430- 80,000 from different tribes attacked Hippo- killed owners of villas and church leaders, etc.
-Augustine- indicated destruction of Roman empire- end of civilized world
-then conquered North Africa and Med. islands (Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily)- not all one group or tribe, brutal- vandal came to mean deliberate act of destruction
-455-sacked Rome for 2 weeks
Vandal Control
-next 20 years- gained control of Rome-placed puppet emperors
-476-final emperor of Western empire removed from office and not replaced – end of Western empire (some consider it end of Roman empire)
-NOT technically the end- Eastern half (Byzantine empire) had a thriving economy, governed from Constantinople for another 1000 years
Greeks
400s- cultural center of Med. now in Greek-speaking world instead of Latin, also the center in 168 BCE- Polybius deported to Rome- compared Romans to Persians and Macedon- Roman larger and more effective b/c or religion and citizenship policies
Roman citizenship
-republic: only Latin-speaking people in Italy
-principate: also discharged soldiers outside Rome
-later continued increasing who could be citizen- 212- all free men, had to pay taxes but could be part of legal system
-equal treatment of subject peoples

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