AP World History 5A Chapter 22 – Guided Reading

Flashcard maker : Brandon Ruffin
\”Enclosure movement\”
Occurred when Rich landowners consolidated their holding and got a title to the common which had been a treat and improve the soil to create better livestock and introduce properties. This enclosure movement and sharecroppers and the landless farm laborers all Street tools these
\”Putting-out system\”
system of merchant- capitalists \”putting out\” raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England.
Mass production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks this method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgewood and Into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwrite
division of labor
Actually it breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood And in other 18th-century factories, it greatly increase the productivity of labor and lowered the cost
machanization
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized Were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cotton in the late 19 and early – 18th – century Carding machine, chlorine bleach, and your call9 all helped to read production industry. Large textile mill mills are now powered by mechanism mechanization offered the advantage of increased activity and lower pipe and also caught needed very few skilled workers and manufactures off hire children the power cotton prices plummeted by 90 industrialization of America’s cash crop, cotton, could be grown all the way cotton gin helped greatly.
Coke
The coal form of which the impurities have been cut out. Replaced charcoal in the iron industry
puddling
Used by Henry Cort in 1784. Was the stirring of molten iron with long to get rid of impurities
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the great exhibition of 1851. Made of iron in glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas come in the first crude but workable steam engine 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device 1760 1770s. steam power was later applied to moving machinery in factories and powering ships And locomotives.
business cycles
recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times and a repetition of the sequence
\”cult of domesticity\”
a movement that came with industrialization to justify removing middle-class women from contact with the business world. Instead, they become responsible for the home, the servants, the education of children, and the family’s social life.
\”laissez-faire\”
The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of a Laissez-faire principal is Adam Smith’s wealth of Nations (1776).
utilitarianism
the virtue that is based on utility and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons
positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count os Saint-Simon. Positive believed that social problems can be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Their ideas became popular in France and Latin America in the 19th century.
utopian socialism
economic system based on the idea that if capital voluntarily surrendered its ownership of the means of production to the state unemployment and poverty would be abolished.
universal male suffrage
Was the right of all men to be able to vote. The workers fought for this right.
Josiah Wedgwood
English industrialist is pottery works first to produce-quality pottery by industrial methods
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur became the most successful textile manufacture the Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, machine, minimal human supervision, Could spin many strong cotton thread that once
Eli Whitney
With associate John Hall invented machine tools that were capable of making other machines which increased the productivity of manufacturing
James watt
Scott invented the condenser and other improvements that meet the steam engine a practical source of power for industry transportation. The lot, and electrical measurement, and after IRailroads also the in 18 46,000 miles. In 18 21,000 miles in the first ever radiated your later stretched westward toward, Chicago a check from New York to Chicago originally took the now can be made 40 other countries in Europe ran started building Belgium to
Alessandro Volta
The first battery 1800 which made it possible for electric current to be produced
Samuel Morse
Was an American inventor who introduced A new telegraph which utilized a code of dots and dashes that were transmitted by A single wire
Adam Smith
Wrote the wealth of Nations which urged people to follow love affair. It also told people to seek personal gain. Urged the government to not interfere unless to protect private property; and government was to allow duty free trade. This advocated fee-market capitalism which challenged the old mercantilism system
spinning Jenny
Was a simple machine in 1764 which throughout, fibers interested in thread. It was cheap and easy to make. Could be operated by one person. Early models six or seven strands at once, later models spun up to 80
water frame
Was a another machine time created a Richard Wright in 1769. Produce thread sharp enough to be out needed a source of power Because they were more large, And complex. its positioning Next to water its name became a cotton mill
cotton gin
A device used in the Americas which was created by Eli Whitney in 1793 separated the bowls, seedpods, from the fiber and meet growing
electric telegraph
Device for rapid,-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was Introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s and replaced telegraph utilized visual signal such as semaphores
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and the condition, occurring first in the 18th-century, that resulted from the use of the engine, that organization and manufacturing in factories, and innovation in transportation case
agricultural revolution
the transformation of farming that resulted in the front the spread of new crops, improvement in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcedily expelled
factory act of 1833
Prevented the claimant of children younger than nine in textile mill. Also limited the hours of 9 to 13-year-olds to eight hours a day. 14 to 18-year-old could have up to 12 hour days.Was passed by Parliament
mines act of 1842
Was passed by Parliament and prohibited The employment of women and boys under the age of 10 underground
corn laws
Words on imported green. It was passed by Parliament. But eventually repeal the name of free trade to lower the cost of workers food and allow employers to pay lower wages. This was a victory for the working class

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