AP World [Classical China]

Flashcard maker : Jason Westley
How did China become classical?
The government/systems/religion became much more complex. They don’t just have a king; they also establish a political system (Mandate of Heaven). They also develop complex, philosophical ideas (Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism). They begin to expand, and the writing system becomes more complex.
What are some of the innovations of Classical China?
– Incredibly technologically advanced
– Advanced agriculturally/with manufacturing
– Makes silk
What are some of the strengths of Classical China?
– Continuity (cultural identity is strong, able to get rid of nomadic invaders)
– Political ideology (Mandate of Heaven)
– Talented bureaucracy
– Ethnocentrism
What are some weaknesses of Classical China?
– Very traditional
– Not willing to change
– Ethnocentrism
What are the three dynasties of Classical China?
Zhou (1029 – 258 BCE)
Qin (221 – 202 BCE)
Han (202 BCE – 220 CE)
What are some characteristics of the Zhou dynasty?
– Mandate of Heaven
– Emperor as \”Son of Heaven\”
– Fractured feudal government
– Warring States Period (402 – 201 BCE)
– Development of Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism
What is feudalism?
It is where the emperor divides up China into provinces and appoints warlords to rule in his name.
What was the Era of the Warring States?
All of the warlords of China rebel. They fight against each other, but no one is able to claim the throne of emperor since no one person can defeat all of the other warlords for a long time.
Who was the ruler of the Qin dynasty?
Shi Huangdi
What were some of Shi Huangdi’s achievements?
– Great Wall
– Terra Cotta Soldiers
– National Census
– Provides unity (uniform weighing measures, writing, axle widths of carts)
How did Shi Huangdi build the Great Wall and Terra Cotta soldiers?
He used forced labor. People were forced to work until they literally died. If they refused, he would take their land or kill them.
Who is the most famous ruler of the Han dynasty?
Wu Ti (140 – 87 BCE)
What is one achievement of the Han dynasty?
– Silk Road
What is the Mandate of Heaven?
It is a political idea developed by the first Zhou emperor that gives the emperor the divine right to rule. If the emperor has the Mandate of Heaven, then he has the support of the gods (whoever wins has the gods’ support). The Mandate remains so long as the emperor rules justly and is virtuous.
What are the events of the dynastic cycle?
1. Dynasty is founded by a powerful leader.
2. Period of great power and prosperity
3. Period of Decline
4. Period of Rebellion, dynasty is overthrown
When are the people allowed to overthrow the dynasty?
When the Emperor no longer has the Mandate. There will be higher taxes, decline of social services, and natural disasters.
What is yin and yang?
It reflects the Chinese belief that the universe is a delicate balance between two opposing forces.
Yin: Earth, darkness, female
Yang: Heaven, light, male
What does it mean when yin and yang is in harmony?
It means balance. The emperor has power.
What three philosophies developed during the Warring States Period?
– Confucianism
– Legalism
– Daoism
Describe Daoism.
– Mysterious, not rational
– Emotional/sensory
– Either you understand it immediately or you never will
Confucius ideas were — and —, not spiritual.
Ethical; Political
Where were Confucius’ ideas written?
What are the values of Confucian belief?
– Ren: humanity, compassion, empathy
– Li: propriety, courtesy, deference to elders
– Xiao: filial piety
– Work ethic: honesty and hard work
– The Golden Rule: treat others how you want to be treated
– Education and tradition
What is the goal of Confucianism?
Its goal is to establish a stable social order and a good government.
Does Confucius believe in equality? Explain.
No. Everyone accepts the hierarchy. He acknowledges that people are not equal, but everyone still deserves compassion regardless.
The leader of a family is the —.
What are the 5 key relationships of Confucianism?
1. Emperor to People
2. Father to Sons
3. Husband to Wife
4. Elder Brother to Younger Brother
5. Friend to Friend
What idea did Confucius stress when it came to relationships with inferior and superior?
Mutual obligation
Superior owes his inferior respect, a good example, protection, and love.
Inferior owes his superior respect and obedience.
Does Confucius believe in the Mandate of Heaven?
Confucius believes people are naturally —.
What was Confucius’ view of women?
He doesn’t hate them, but he thinks they will always be inferior. In order to have domestic harmony, the woman must be subservient and accept that the husband is the leader. Women could only be in charge of the home.
What was Confucius’ view of merchants?
He absolutely hated them and considered them to be greedy scum. He thinks they only care about themselves, and there was no place for their selfishness and greediness in Chinese society.
Confucius urged people to participate in the —.
What were the Chinese attitudes about having a daughter?
It was not a good thing.
You have to pay dowry for daughters, and they don’t take care of you in your old age since they have to take care of their husband’s parents.
Who was the founder of Daoism?
Lao Tsu
What is Daoism based on?
The idea of Dao \”the way.\”
Daoism believes that nature contains a — that directs all life.
Divine impulse
Daoism believes that true understanding comes from —.
Withdrawing from the world and contemplating the life force of nature
Daoism is not concerned with the meaning of the —.
Daoism stressed the virtue of — and suggests that humans should be like —.
Inaction; Water
In Daoism, the best government is the one that is least —.
How did Daoism become a religion?
It started to have rituals and ceremonies. They began worshipping gods and wondering about an afterlife.
Who developed Legalism?
Legalism says that man’s nature is inherently —.
How does Legalism say you should achieve order?
You should do so through force. Make people fear you. Enforce rules. Be authoritarian. Have punishments and rewards.
Which dynasty adopted the Legalist way of thought?
What dynasty adopted the Confucian way of thought?
Who created the Great Wall of China?
The Great Wall was originally a bunch of smaller walls created by the warlords during the Zhou.
Shi Hunagdi joins all of these together during the Qin.
What was the wall made to do? What does it actually do?
It was make to protect China from the invading nomads from the Gobi Desert. It actually isolated China from the rest of the world.
True or False?
The Great Wall is the same width and height throughout.
Who did the actual labor to build the wall?
Peasant labors (forced)
How was the wall constructed?
Since it runs over many different types of terrain, it was constructed in whatever way was easiest for each terrain.
Where are the Terra Cotta soldiers?
Guarding outside Shi Huangdi’s tomb.
What are some characteristics of the terra cotta soldiers?
– Thousands of them
– Each one was modeled after a particular soldier (not one is the same)
– Also horses and chariots and weapons
– In battle formation
Why was Shi Huangdi’s tomb never excavated?
His tomb had rivers of mercury.
The power of Shi Huangdi is symbolized by his —.
Why did the Qin dynasty not survive the death of Shi Huandi?
No one wants another Qin emperor. They rebel against his son because of heavy taxes and forced labor.
Who eventually takes over after the Qin?
A peasant from the province of Han
Who creates the Han dynasty?
Lu Bang
What does Lu Bang do?
– Creates bureaucracy to advise him (people have to be smart, obedient men)
– University system to educate men
– Civil Service exam
The Han dynasty is considered the — of Classical China.
Golden Age
What is the Three Gorges Dam?
It is the area where three rivers come together. It was the site of horrific flood, so the purpose of the dam is to end flooding in the interior of China and to get hydroelectric power. It is a very huge undertaking to build, and many people had to be displaced from their traditional land.
What is the Silk Road a symbol of?
China’s connection
What did people trade on the Silk Road?
Trade goods, people, ideas, disease
— is the basic political, social, and economical unit in China.
What is the role of women?
They are always inferior. Husband should control wife; wife should serve husband. Women were highly prized for virginity. They had to be controlled and restricted so they wouldn’t cheat.
What is the social hierarchy?
– Upper Class: Landowners/aristocrats
– Middle Class: Farmers
– Lower Class: Mean People (artisans, entertainers, merchants, etc.)

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