AP Psychology: Unit 6 Learning Reading Guide

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Learning
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A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
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Habituation
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An organism’s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
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Associative Learning
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Learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together, such as my cat knowing that she will be fed when I get home from work.
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Classical Conditioning
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A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
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Behaviorism
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A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
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Unconditioned Responce (UR)
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Automatic response to the stimulus
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Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
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A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
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Conditioned Response (CR)
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In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
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In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
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Acquisition
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In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
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Higher-order Conditioning
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Process by which a neutral stimulus takes on conditioned properties through pairing with a conditioned stimulus
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Extinction
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A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
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Spontaneous Recovery
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Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
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Generalization
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The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
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Discrimination
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Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group.
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Learned Helplessness
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The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
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Respondent Behavior
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Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

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