AP Psychology Treatment and Therapy

Flashcard maker : Trina Garrison
Active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies; a feature of Roger’s client-centered therapy
Antidepressant Drugs
biological treatment; typically used for depression but is often used for anxiety, OCD, GAD, panic disorder, social phobias, PTSD, and sometimes ADHD; 3 categories: tricyclics, MAO inhibitors, and SSRIs; SSRIs are more popular (Prozac, Zoloft, Effexor, Paxil) because they tend to have less side effects , SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin in the nervous system; MAOIs and trycyclics both concentrate on serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain but have a number of side effects and limitations (food reactions), MAOIs and trycyclics are now used in serious cases and not so much after the invention of Prozac
Antipsychotic Drugs
biological treatment option used to treat the severe psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia; effective for treating hallucinations; blocks dopamine receptors; Examples: thorazine, therazine, clozapine,
Aversive Conditioning
behavioral technique; designed to eliminate undesirable behaviors; a type of counterconditioning; associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol); controversial technique
Behavior Contracting
behavioral technique; therapist and client both agree on goals and reinforcement when goals are reached; written contract; reinforces new behaviors and ignores/punishes undesirable behaviors; often used with adolescents and children
Behavior Therapy
Approach that is based on the belief that all behavior (normal and abnormal) is learned; therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors and to teach new, appropriate ways of behaving; includes systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling extinction, token economy, and behavior contracting; is often combined with Cognitive therapies and is known as CBT
Biological Treatments
treatment that focuses on organic or biological aspects; includes medication, ECT, psychosurgery; best used in conjunction with other forms of therapy because when the biological treatment ceases, typically the symptoms return
Client-Centered Therapy (Person-Centered)
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers; therapist uses non-directive techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth; uses bits and pieces of neo-Freudian views; calls for unconditional positive regard; goal is to help client become a fully-functioning person
Cognitive Therapies
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions; designed to correct cognitive distortions or “stinking thinking”; includes stress-inoculation, RET (REBT), and Beck’s CT; often combined with Behavioral therapies and is known as CBT
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
cognitive technique; designed by Aaron Beck; designed to identify and change inappropriate negative and self-critical patterns of thought; primarily used to treat depression and anxiety; therapy is not as challenging and confrontational as REBT; aims to lead person to more realistic and flexible ways of thinking
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning; includes systematic desensitization, flooding, aversive conditioning, etc.
Couples Therapy
therapy that is designed to treat partners who are having difficulties in their relationship; often concentrates in improving communication and expectations between the partners or misinterpretation
policy of treating individuals with severe disorders in the larger community or in a small residential center (halfway house) rather than large wards in a public hospital; Problems include poorly funded community centers or no centers, poor preparation due to understaffing and lack of funding, social stigma
movement is psychotherapy that recognizes the value of a broad treatment package that best suits the client and the client’s reason for seeking therapy rather than sticking to one type of approach; Example: if you are a psychoanalyst and your client comes to you for a phobia, an eclectic psychoanalyst would utilize desensitization rather than focus on childhood events
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
biomedical treatment; typically for severely depressed; brief, mild electric current is sent through the brain (one hemisphere) of an anesthetized patient; often produces convulsions and temporary coma; side effects include disorientation, STM loss; now used as a last resort treatment
Exposure Therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
used in Systematic Desensitization; when the undesired behavior stops
Family Therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system; views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relations and improved communication; seeks to change all family behaviors to benefit the entire unit
behavioral technique; counterconditioning; an aggressive method of desensitization; exposure to anxiety-producing stimuli is great; short-term technique; example: someone who is afraid of spiders must immediately handle a tarantula, makes me think of the show “Fear Factor”
Free Association
Freudian technique; used in psychoanalysis; “stream of consciousness”; client talks about whatever topic comes to mind without editing, controlling, or inhibiting thoughts and fantasies; therapist acts as a “blank slate”
Gestalt Therapy
outgrowth of Fritz Perls work; insight therapy; emphasizes the wholeness of personality and attempts to reawaken people to their emotions and sensations; works in the here-and-now; encourages face-to-face confrontations (e.g. “How is that working for you?”); therapist is active and directive; focuses on the whole person/client; uses empty chair technique
Group Therapy
psychotherapy where multiple people meet regularly to interact and help one another to achieve insight into their feelings and behavior; allows the therapist to see how the client interacts with others, offers a social support, and shows the client that s/he is not the only person with that problem; can be less expensive; includes family, couples, and self-help groups.
awareness of previously unconscious feelings and memories and how the this awareness influences present feelings and behaviors; working through childhood conflicts
Insight Therapy
psychotherapy designed to help an individual come to a better awareness and understanding of his/her feelings, motivations and actions; includes psychoanalysis, Gestalt, client-centered therapy.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
biological treatment; a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders; naturally occurring salt; effective in 75% of bipolar cases; needs to be monitored closely for correct dosage treatment; do not know how lithium works exactly
behavioral technique; process of learning a behavior by watching someone perform the behavior; helps relieve anxiety to watch someone else before the client tries (friend touches snake and lives, so can you…); very effective when combined with positive reinforcement (especially in helping people with schizophrenia); don’t forget the sociocultural implications
Primary Prevention
techniques and programs designed to improve social environment so that new cases do not develop; includes family planning, genetic counseling, sex education, effects of drugs, etc.; key word here is prevention (education)
Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique; designed to bring repressed feelings and thoughts to conscious awareness so the person can deal with these issues more effectively; uses free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences–and the therapist’s interpretations of them–released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
biological treatment; heightens alertness and arousal; commonly used to treat AD/HD case because they increase the electrical activity of the frontal lobe and therefore cause a calming effect rather than stimulating; includes Ritalin
biological treatment; brain surgery to change a person’s behavior; includes a prefrontal lobotomy; rarely used today
the use of psychological techniques to treat disorder; can take many forms (group, individual, family, couples, etc)
Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
cognitive therapy founded by Albert Ellis; directive therapy; based on the idea that psychological distress is caused by irrational and self-defeating beliefs; therapy is designed to challenge the dysfunctional thoughts (“stinking thinking”) and reinterpret the thoughts in a more positive light; therapy is challenging and confrontational; aims to lead person to more realistic and flexible ways of thinking
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Revolving Door
term to describe the constant entering and leaving of mental health facilities; often caused by deinstitutionalization and health insurance
Secondary Prevention
programs to identify groups (e.g. abused children, rape victims) that are at high risk of disorders and to detect maladaptive behavior before the behavior disrupts life; includes crisis intervention, suicide hot lines
cognitive technique; suppression of negative, anxiety-provoking throughts and replaced with positive, “coping” statements
Short-Term Psychodynamic Therapy
psychodynamic therapies that are limited in the number of sessions, for example 25 sessions; sessions are weekly for a fixed period of time unlike most psychodynamic therapies which meet 3x/week for years
Stress-Inoculation Therapy
cognitive technique; designed to train people to deal with stressful situations by using a pattern of self-talk; replace bad statements with positive statements when in stressful situations
Systematic Desensitization
behavioral technique; a type of counterconditioning; designed to reduce a person’s fear and anxiety by gradually associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias, OCD; includes developing a hierarchy of fears
Tertiary Prevention
programs to help individuals adjust to community life after institutionalization; includes day or weekend passes from hospital, day programs (spend night at home but return to hospital each day), halfway houses, or supportive therapy
Token Economy
behavioral technique; an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior; a patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats; often seen in elementary schools and reading programs to promote desirable behaviors, weekend passes, etc.
in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships; Freud thinks the client is carrying over feelings from childhood authority figures and putting them onto the therapist; can be positive or negative

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