AP Psychology Chapter 9 Thinking & Language

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Cognition
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all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
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Concept
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a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
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Prototype
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a mental image or best example of a category
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Algorithm
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a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
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Heuristic
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a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 398)
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Insight
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a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
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Confirmation bias
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a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
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Fixation
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the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
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Mental set
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A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
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Belief perseverance
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clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
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Intuition
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knowing or sensing something without the use of reason; an insight
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Functional fixedness
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the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
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Representativeness heuristic
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judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
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Availability heuristic
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estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
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Overconfidence
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the tendency to be more confident than correct–to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
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Framing
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the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
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Belief bias
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the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
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Language
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our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
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Phoneme
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in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
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Morpheme
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in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
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Grammar
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in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
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Semantics
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The study of meaning in language.
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Syntax
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studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences
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Babbling stage
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beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
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One-word stage
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the stage in speech development, from about 1 to 2, during which a childspeaks mostly in single words.
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Two-word stage
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Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
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Telegraphic speech
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early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram–‘go car’–using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting ‘auxiliary’ words
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Aphasia
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impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke’s area (impairing understanding)
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Broca’s area
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controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
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Wernicke’s area
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controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
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Linguistic relativity
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Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think
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Artificial Intelligence
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the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes suchs as reasoning and understanding language
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Computer Neural Networks
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Computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells

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