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AP Psychology: Chapter 17 Test Essay

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1. An eclectic psychotherapist is one who: A) takes a nondirective approach in helping clients solve their problems. B) views psychological disorders as usually stemming from one cause, such as a biological abnormality. C) uses one particular technique, such as psychoanalysis or counterconditioning, in treating disorders. D) uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem.
answer

D
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2. Of the following therapists, who would be most likely to interpret a person’s psychological problems in terms of repressed impulses? A) a behavior therapist B) a cognitive therapist C) a humanistic therapist D) a psychoanalyst
answer

D
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3. The technique in which a person is asked to report everything that comes to his or her mind is called ________; it is favored by ________ therapists. A) active listening; cognitive B) spontaneous remission; humanistic C) free association; psychoanalytic D) systematic desensitization; behavior
answer

C
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4. During a session with his psychoanalyst, Jamal hesitates while describing a highly embarrassing thought. In the psychoanalytic framework, this is an example of: A) transference. B) insight. C) mental repression. D) resistance.
answer

D
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5. During psychoanalysis, Jane has developed strong feelings of hatred for her therapist. The analyst interprets Jane’s behavior in terms of a ________ of her feelings toward her father. A) projection B) resistance C) regression D) transference
answer

D
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6. Which type(s) of psychotherapy would be most likely to use the interpretation of dreams as a technique for bringing unconscious feelings into awareness? A) psychoanalysis B) psychodynamic therapy C) cognitive therapy D) both a. and b.
answer

D
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7. Which of the following is not a common criticism of psychoanalysis? A) It emphasizes the existence of repressed memories. B) It provides interpretations that are hard to disprove. C) It is generally a very expensive process. D) It gives therapists too much control over patients.
answer

D
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8. Unlike traditional psychoanalytic therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy: A) helps people gain insight into the roots of their problems. B) offers interpretations of patients’ feelings. C) focuses on current relationships. D) does all of the above.
answer

C
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9. Of the following categories of psychotherapy, which is known for its nondirective nature? A) psychoanalysis B) humanistic therapy C) behavior therapy D) cognitive therapy
answer

B
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10. Given that Jim’s therapist attempts to help him by offering genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, she is probably practicing: A) psychoanalysis. B) behavior therapy. C) cognitive therapy. D) client-centered therapy.
answer

D
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11. Carl Rogers was a ________ therapist who was the creator of ________. A) behavior; systematic desensitization B) psychoanalytic; insight therapy C) humanistic; client-centered therapy D) cognitive; cognitive therapy for depression
answer

C
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12. Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual’s inherent potential for self-fulfillment? A) behavior therapy B) psychoanalysis C) humanistic therapy D) biomedical therapy
answer

C
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13. The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called: A) active listening. B) free association. C) systematic desensitization. D) meta-analysis.
answer

A
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14. Which type of psychotherapy focuses on changing unwanted behaviors rather than on discovering their underlying causes? A) behavior therapy B) cognitive therapy C) humanistic therapy D) psychoanalysis
answer

A
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15. Leota is startled when her therapist says that she needs to focus on eliminating her problem behavior rather than gaining insight into its underlying cause. Most likely, Leota has consulted a ________ therapist. A) behavior B) humanistic C) cognitive D) psychoanalytic
answer

A
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16. The techniques of counterconditioning are based on principles of: A) observational learning. B) classical conditioning. C) operant conditioning. D) behavior modification.
answer

B
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17. The technique of systematic desensitization is based on the premise that maladaptive symptoms are: A) a reflection of irrational thinking. B) conditioned responses. C) expressions of unfulfilled wishes. D) all of the above.
answer

B
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18. In order to help him overcome his fear of flying, Duane’s therapist has him construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering stimuli and then learn to associate each with a state of deep relaxation. Duane’s therapist is using the technique called: A) systematic desensitization. B) aversive conditioning. C) shaping. D) free association.
answer

A
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19. In which of the following does the client learn to associate a relaxed state with a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing situations? A) cognitive therapy B) aversive conditioning C) counterconditioning D) systematic desensitization
answer

D
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20. To help Sam quit smoking, his therapist blew a blast of smoke into Sam’s face each time Sam inhaled. Which technique is the therapist using? A) exposure therapy B) behavior modification C) systematic desensitization D) aversive conditioning
answer

D
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21. Using techniques of classical conditioning to develop an association between unwanted behavior and an unpleasant experience is known as: A) aversive conditioning. B) systematic desensitization. C) transference. D) electroconvulsive therapy.
answer

A
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22. One reason that aversive conditioning may only be temporarily effective is that: A) for ethical reasons, therapists cannot use sufficiently intense unconditioned stimuli to sustain classical conditioning. B) patients are often unable to become sufficiently relaxed for conditioning to take place. C) patients know that outside the therapist’s office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences. D) most conditioned responses are elicited by many nonspecific stimuli and it is impossible to countercondition them all.
answer

C
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23. A patient in a hospital receives poker chips for making her bed, being punctual at meal times, and maintaining her physical appearance. The poker chips can be exchanged for privileges, such as television viewing, snacks, and magazines. This is an example of the: A) psychodynamic therapy technique called systematic desensitization. B) behavior therapy technique called token economy. C) cognitive therapy technique called token economy. D) humanistic therapy technique called systematic desensitization.
answer

B
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24. Principles of operant conditioning underlie which of the following techniques? A) counterconditioning B) systematic desensitization C) stress inoculation training D) the token economy
answer

D
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25. The operant conditioning technique in which desired behaviors are rewarded with points or poker chips that can later be exchanged for various rewards is called: A) counterconditioning. B) systematic desensitization. C) a token economy. D) exposure therapy.
answer

C
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26. Which of the following is not a common criticism of behavior therapy? A) Clients may not develop intrinsic motivation for their new behaviors. B) Behavior control is unethical. C) Outside the therapeutic setting, the new behavior may disappear. D) All of the above are criticisms of behavior therapy.
answer

D
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27. After Darnel dropped a pass in an important football game, he became depressed and vowed to quit the team because of his athletic incompetence. The campus psychologist challenged his illogical reasoning and pointed out that Darnel’s “incompetence” had earned him an athletic scholarship. The psychologist’s response was most typical of a ________ therapist. A) behavior B) psychoanalytic C) client-centered D) cognitive
answer

D
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28. Which type of therapy focuses on eliminating irrational thinking? A) EMDR B) client-centered therapy C) cognitive therapy D) behavior therapy
answer

C
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29. Which form of therapy is most likely to be successful in treating depression? A) behavior therapy B) psychoanalysis C) cognitive therapy D) humanistic therapy
answer

C
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30. One variety of ________ therapy is based on the finding that depressed people often attribute their failures to ________. A) humanistic; themselves B) behavior; external circumstances C) cognitive; external circumstances D) cognitive; themselves
answer

D
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31. Ben is a cognitive-behavior therapist. Compared to Rachel, who is a behavior therapist, Ben is more likely to: A) base his therapy on principles of operant conditioning. B) base his therapy on principles of classical conditioning. C) address clients’ attitudes as well as behaviors. D) focus on clients’ unconscious urges
answer

C
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32. Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to: A) alter the way people act. B) make people more aware of their irrational negative thinking. C) alter the way people think and act. D) countercondition anxiety-provoking stimuli.
answer

C
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33. Which of the following types of therapy does not belong with the others? A) cognitive therapy B) family therapy C) self-help group D) support group
answer

A
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34. Family therapy differs from other forms of psychotherapy because it focuses on: A) using a variety of treatment techniques. B) conscious rather than unconscious processes. C) the present instead of the past. D) how family tensions may cause individual problems.
answer

D
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35. Before 1950, the main mental health providers were: A) psychologists. B) paraprofessionals. C) psychiatrists. D) the clergy.
answer

C
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36. The effectiveness of psychotherapy has been assessed both through clients’ perspectives and through controlled research studies. What have such assessments found? A) Clients’ perceptions and controlled studies alike strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy. B) Whereas clients’ perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results. C) Whereas studies strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, many clients feel dissatisfied with their progress. D) Clients’ perceptions and controlled studies alike paint a very mixed picture of the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
answer

B
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37. Which of the following best describes the results of the 30-year follow-up study of 500 Massachusetts boys who had been considered predelinquents? A) Predelinquent boys who received counseling had fewer problems as adults than untreated predelinquent boys. B) Predelinquent boys who did not receive counseling had slightly fewer problems as adults than boys who received counseling. C) Predelinquent boys who underwent behavior therapy had fewer problems as adults than boys who underwent psychoanalysis. D) Predelinquent boys who underwent psychoanalysis had fewer problems as adults than boys who underwent behavior therapy.
answer

B
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38. The following are some of the conclusions drawn in the text regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy. For which of these conclusions did the Massachusetts study of predelinquent boys provide evidence? A) Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of therapy usually are very accurate. B) Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of therapy differ somewhat from the objective findings. C) Individuals who receive treatment do somewhat better than individuals who do not. D) Overall, no one type of therapy is a “winner,” but certain therapies are more suited to certain problems.
answer

B
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39. (Thinking Critically) A person can derive benefits from psychotherapy simply by believing in it. This illustrates the importance of: A) spontaneous remission. B) the placebo effect. C) the transference effect. D) interpretation.
answer

B
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40. Nick survived a car accident in which another passenger died. Feeling anxious and guilty, he sought treatment from an alternative therapist, who used eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to help Nick return to his normally upbeat, optimistic frame of mind. After several months of treatment Nick began feeling better. Although Nick is convinced that the alternative therapy was responsible for his improvement, it is also possible that it was the result of: A) regression toward the mean. B) a placebo effect. C) merely seeking treatment from any practitioner who provided an empathic, trusting environment. D) all of the above.
answer

D
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41. Which of the following is not necessarily an advantage of group therapies over individual therapies? A) They tend to take less time for the therapist. B) They tend to cost less money for the client. C) They are more effective. D) They allow the client to test new behaviors in a social context.
answer

C
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42. A relative wants to know which type of therapy works best. You should tell your relative that: A) psychotherapy does not work. B) behavior therapy is the most effective. C) cognitive therapy is the most effective. D) no one type of therapy is consistently the most successful.
answer

D
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43. The results of meta-analysis of the effectiveness of different psychotherapies reveals that: A) no single type of therapy is consistently superior. B) behavior therapies are most effective in treating specific problems, such as phobias. C) cognitive therapies are most effective in treating depressed emotions. D) all of the above are true.
answer

D
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44. Light-exposure therapy has proven useful as a form of treatment for people suffering from: A) bulimia. B) seasonal affective disorder. C) schizophrenia. D) dissociative identity disorder.
answer

B
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45. A close friend who for years has suffered from wintertime depression is seeking your advice regarding the effectiveness of light-exposure therapy. What should you tell your friend? A) “Don’t waste your time and money. It doesn’t work.” B) “A more effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder is eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.” C) “You’d be better off with a prescription for lithium.” D) “It might be worth a try. There is some evidence that morning light exposure produces relief.”
answer

D
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46. Among the common ingredients of the psychotherapies is: A) the offer of a therapeutic relationship. B) the expectation among clients that the therapy will prove helpful. C) the chance to develop a fresh perspective on oneself and the world. D) all of the above.
answer

D
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47. A meta-analysis of research studies comparing the effectiveness of professional therapists with paraprofessionals found that: A) the professionals were much more effective than the paraprofessionals. B) the paraprofessionals were much more effective than the professionals. C) except in treating depression, the paraprofessionals were about as effective as the professionals. D) the paraprofessionals were about as effective as the professionals.
answer

D
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48. Seth enters therapy to talk about some issues that have been upsetting him. The therapist prescribes some medication to help him. The therapist is most likely a: A) psychologist. B) psychiatrist. C) psychiatric social worker. D) clinical social worker.
answer

B
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49. Which biomedical therapy is most likely to be practiced today? A) psychosurgery B) electroconvulsive therapy C) drug therapy D) counterconditioning
answer

C
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50. In an experiment testing the effects of a new antipsychotic drug, neither Dr. Cunningham nor her patients know whether the patients are in the experimental or the control group. This is an example of the ________ technique. A) meta-analysis B) within-subjects C) double-blind D) single-blind
answer

C
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51. Linda’s doctor prescribes medication that blocks the activity of dopamine in her nervous system. Evidently, Linda is being treated with an ________ drug. A) antipsychotic B) antianxiety C) antidepressant D) anticonvulsive
answer

A
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52. The antipsychotic drugs appear to produce their effects by blocking the receptor sites for: A) dopamine. B) epinephrine. C) norepinephrine. D) serotonin.
answer

A
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53. The types of drugs criticized for reducing symptoms without resolving underlying problems are the: A) antianxiety drugs. B) antipsychotic drugs. C) antidepressant drugs. D) amphetamines.
answer

A
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54. Abraham’s doctor prescribes medication that increases the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin in his nervous system. Evidently, Abraham is being treated with an ________ drug. A) antipsychotic B) antianxiety C) antidepressant D) anticonvulsive
answer

C
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55. Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting serotonin or: A) dopamine. B) lithium. C) norepinephrine. D) acetylcholine.
answer

C
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56. Electroconvulsive therapy is most useful in the treatment of: A) schizophrenia. B) depression. C) personality disorders. D) anxiety disorders.
answer

B
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57. A psychiatrist has diagnosed a patient as having bipolar disorder. It is likely that she will prescribe: A) an antipsychotic drug. B) lithium. C) an antianxiety drug. D) a drug that blocks receptor sites for serotonin.
answer

B
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58. Which of the following is the drug most commonly used to treat bipolar disorder? A) Ativan B) chlorpromazine C) Xanax D) lithium
answer

D
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59. Although Moniz won the Nobel prize for developing the lobotomy procedure, the technique is not widely used today because: A) it produces a lethargic, immature personality. B) it is irreversible. C) calming drugs became available in the 1950s. D) of all of the above reasons.
answer

D
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60. In concluding her talk entitled “Psychosurgery Today,” Ashley states that: A) “Psychosurgery is still widely used throughout the world.” B) “Electroconvulsive therapy is the only remaining psychosurgical technique that is widely practiced.” C) “With advances in psychopharmacology, psychosurgery has largely been abandoned.” D) “Although lobotomies remain popular, other psychosurgical techniques have been abandoned.”
answer

C
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61. Psychologists who advocate a ________ approach to mental health contend that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing the disturbed individual’s ________. A) biomedical; diet B) family; behavior C) humanistic; feelings D) preventive; environment
answer

D
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62. A psychotherapist who believes that the best way to treat psychological disorders is to prevent them from developing would be most likely to view disordered behavior as: A) maladaptive thoughts and actions. B) expressions of unconscious conflicts. C) conditioned responses. D) an understandable response to stressful social conditions.
answer

D