AP Psych Unit 2

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
A researcher who publishes the results of a case study might be most worried about violating which ethical principle of human experimentation
confidentiality
Why is replication important to science?
Repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings.
A correlation coefficient is a measure of the
According to Emily’s grandfather, Adolf Hitler’s obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather’s claim best illustrates
direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.
According to Emily’s grandfather, Adolf Hitler’s obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather’s claim best illustrates
cynical.
Critical thinkers can best be described as
cynical
Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?
overconfidence
Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem?
+0.60
To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as
naturalistic observation.
Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?
mean
Dr. DeVries is interested in measuring how practice in problem solving affects this ability. The population of interest is high school seniors, and the sample consists of students who attend an exclusive college the following might best explain why Dr. DeVries may not be able to generalize his findings?practice in solving particular types of problems, while the other half does not. Both groups take the same problem-solving test. Which of preparatory school. Half of the sample receives
His sample is not representative of the population.
Click on the square that would be a Type II Error
Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, in order to further her career, she decided to move. Megan’s experience best illustrates
To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To reduce the chance that the children in personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use ofone group have more aggressive
The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable
A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without talking with the students about the study violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?
To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among boys and girls in the school yard. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?
naturalistic observation
Which of the following researchers used the case study method, carefully observing one exceptional individual in depth to reach conclusions that might be true of all of us?
Jean Piaget
To determine whether the strength of people’s self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of
correlational research.
Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda’s experience best illustrates
overconfidence
American males shake hands in greeting; Japanese men bow. However, people can communicate with a smile. What does this tell us about the role of culture in understanding our psychology?
Culture shapes our behavior, but certain underlying processes guide people everywhere.
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between
causes and effects.
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions.
To exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in
experimentation
Stanley Milgram designed his influential studies on obedience in response to thinking about the Holocaust. In their defense, Nazi war criminals said they had committed such atrocities against the Jews and others to because they were
psychology is not value free; it affects what psychologists study.
To examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, and assess conclusions is to engage in
critical thinking.
During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is
14
Click on the square that would represent the acceptance of the Null Hypothesis. Ho
Experimenter thinks the results are not significant & Results are not significant
A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called
experiment.
The belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis pain best illustrates
an illusory correlation.
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
prediction.
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
none
Redelmeier and Tversky (1996) followed 18 patients with arthritis for 18 months. Patients were asked to record their pain and joint tenderness, while researchers documented changes in the weather. Nearly all associated with weather changes, when the actual correlation was near zero. These participants need to be reminded thatpatients believed that their condition was
we are likely to recall instances that confirm our beliefs.
Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students’ perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask the students to
personally engage in naturalistic observation.
Professional psychological associations require researchers to
minimize infection, illness, and pain in animal subjects.
To study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. To ensure that any differences in the productivity of the noise levels to which the groups are exposed, the researchers would usetwo groups actually result from the different
random assignment.
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin’s conclusion best illustrates the danger of
generalizing from vivid cases.
A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that
wording effects.
Researchers have found that men and women learn to walk at about the same age, experience the same sensations of light, and exhibit similar overall intelligence. These findings support the idea that
the same underlying processes guide people everywhere.
Hypotheses are best described as
predictions.
Six different high school students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13, and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this group’s entertainment expenditures is
$13.
The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.
Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that they received best illustrates the power of neither class was surprised by the information
the hindsight bias.
In which research method do we study one exceptional individual in depth and try to carefully draw conclusions about others based on the evidence?
case study
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as
naturalistic observation.
Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will bring bad luck. Felicia’s belief best illustrates
illusory correlation.
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)
population.
Which research method is typically used to examine one participant in depth, usually because the individual’s situation/behavior is rare or unusual?
case study
Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor’s prediction example of regarding employment success is an
a hypothesis.
Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence describes which of the following?
empirical approach
Replication involves
repeating an earlier research study.
The IQ scores of the five members of the Duluth family are 100, 82, 104, 96, and 118. For this distribution of scores, the range is
36
Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research. Both women sense. This best illustrates the power of would consider the findings to be common
The hindsight bias
Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are uninformed about
which experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.
Why would the median, rather than the mean, be the appropriate measure of central tendency in determining housing values in a particular community?
The median is minimally affected by extreme scores.
The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores is the
mean
In 1953, H.M. underwent surgery to control his seizures. Doctors removed tissue from the hippocampus. As a result H.M.’s memory was severely impaired. Psychologists studied H.M.’s memory function until his the psychologists utilize in this situation?death in 2008. Which research method did
case study
The American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed.
To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of
naturalistic observation.
To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a(n)
control condition.

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