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Test Questions on Ap Psych: Social Psychology

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Mere exposure effect
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the more you see something or someone familiarity occurs, which breeds acceptance. EX.- buying advertised namebrands, ad jingles often use popular songs, jingles. EX. once politicians win one term in office they are much more likely to win again
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Central Route to Persuasion
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using facts and logic to persuade someone, message would be deeply processed
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Peripheral Route to Persuasion
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using emotional appeal to persuade someone, message would be shallowly processed
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Festinger and Carlsmith Study
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participants complete a boring task. Some were paid $1 to lie to incoming participants and say the task was enjoyable. Others were paid $20 to lie. The subjects who were only paid $1 were more likely to feel dissonance because they receive insufficient justification for lying. As a response to the dissonance those paid $1 changed their mind and said the task was actually enjoyable, to remove the dissonance. Those paid $20 believed their lies were justified and did not feel dissonance and maintained that the task was boring.
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Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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tendency for people who first agree with small request to larger one. EX.- Get someone to lend you 5$ he/she is more likely to lend you 15$ later
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Door-in-the face
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Ex. Ask someone for $100, he says “No” – easier to get $20.
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Norms of Reciprocity
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after giving something to somebody it is easier to receive something back because they feel as if they owe you. EX- Companies send something free in the mail
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Attribution Theory
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tendency to give causal explanation of behavior to persons’ situation (external) or disposition (biological trait). Ex. Johnny is a bad kid. Situation attribution – Johnny feeds off of other bad kids in the class. Disposition attribution – Johnny is bad in all situations
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
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ones beliefs/expectations about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief. (EX. – teacher is told specific students are on the verge of significant academic growth. By the end of the year these students IQ’s grew more than the others. This was attributed to how the teacher treated them and was called the Pygmalion in the classroom experiment.
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Fundamental Attribution error
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when looking at others’ behavior, people tend to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors (their personality or character) and underestimate the role of situational factors. But when looking at self behavior, the opposite is true
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collective vs. individualistic cultures
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fundamental attribution error is less likely to occur in collectivist cultures than indiviualistic cultures; EX in the US (individualist culture) the importance and uniqueness of the individual is stressed. In Japan (collectivist culture) a person’s link to various groups such as family or company is stressed; people in Japan are less likely to commit the fundamental error because they are more attuned to the ways that different situation influence their own behavior.
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False Consensus Effect
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tendency for people to overestimate the number of people that agree with them
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Self-serving bias
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to take more credit for good outcomes than deserve. ( EX. coach emphasizes his/her role in win, blames players, referees when lose)
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Just world phenomenon tendency
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for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve. (EX- poor are poor because they’re lazy)
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Outgroup homogeneity
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tendency to see members of your own group as more diverse than members of other groups
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In-group bias
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preference for members of own group (most similar to you in gender, race, class, age, proximity (EX- belief that Butler students are better than Providence students (even though this is a fact).
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Prejudice and Contact Theory
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Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if the two groups are made to work toward a superordinate goal.
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Superordinate goal
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contact between hostile groups will only reduce if they are made to work toward a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all (superordinate goal)
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Sherifs’ study
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combative boys’ at summer camp began getting along after working cooperatively toward a shared superordinate goal. This led to the use of cooperative learning groups to help alleviate prejudice. This also caused an increased use of cooperative learning (groupwork- with one grade) in schools during integration
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Frustration-aggression hypothesis
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frustration creates anger
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Bystander effect
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(aka bystander intervention) the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
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diffusion of responsibility
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The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
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Pluralistic Ignorance
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is the tendency for people to look to others to decide what is right in a situation. Ex:seeing smoke in a room while taking a test
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Altruism
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unselfish giving
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Attraction Studies
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we are attracted to people based on similarity, proximity and reciprocal liking. Thus, opposites do not usually attract, absence does not usually make the heart grow fonder. Also, better looking people are perceived as being more intelligent and confident.
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Social facilitation
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tendency to perform better (on easier tasks) with an audience
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Social Impairment (aka social inhibition)
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tendency to perform worse (on difficult tasks) with an audience
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Conformity
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changing one’s attitudes/behaviors to match a group norm
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Asch’s study of Conformity
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Q. Which line matches the standard line? Group pressure caused participants to change opinions (even when answer is obvious) about a third of the time. Conformity did not increase after 3 members were in group
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Individualism
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behaviors/decisions relatively uninfluenced from that of the majority groups
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Milgram’s study of Obedience
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Subjects were deceived into thinking that they were shocking someone. Participants continued shocking other participants while they were screaming to Stop! Obedience increased when: 1) authority close at hand 2) authority by prestigious institution 3) victim depersonalized (in another room) 4) no role models for defiance. This experiment has been criticized on ethical grounds. 70% went to XXX. It showed how ordinary people can be influenced by authority figures to do immoral things.
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Norms
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rules about how group members should act
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Social loafing
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tendency for effort to decrease when working in groups
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Group polarization
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– enhancement of group’s attitudes more toward the extreme through discussion in a group .EX. after spending 3 hours on a hate group chat line one feels even more hatred toward that group
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Deindividuation
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loss of self-restraint in-group situations where one becomes anonymous. “If you could be invisible for 24 hours what would you do.
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Group Think
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mode of thinking when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. EX- Pres. Kennedy’s advisors decided to invade Cuba or the decision to launch the spaceship challenger or Iraq invasion
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Prejudice
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usually negative, unjustifiable attitude toward a group
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Discrimination
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negative action taken against prejudice group
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Principles shown in Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment
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Deindividuation (prisoner and guards lost their own identity and began to do things they would not do if they were identifiable) and Role Playing (Prisoners and Guards began to take their roles too seriously
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Attitude
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set of beliefs and feelings; evaluative meaning our feelings are necessarily positive or negative; advertising is devoted to affecting people’s attitudes
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Cognitive Dissonance theory
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idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors; when they don’t, they experience unpleasant mental tension or dissonance; EX: Amira thinks studying is for geeks, if she studies for 10 hrs for chemistry test she’ll experience cog. diss. She can’t undo the studying, so she can reduce the dissonance by changing her attitude and decide studying doesn’t necessarily make someone a geek
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Rosenthal and Jacobson experiment
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“Pygmalion in the Classroom” experiment; administered a test to elementary children that would ID those who were on the verge of significant academic growth. In reality the test was a standard IQ test. Subjects were randomly selected for the test and then they told the teachers these students were ripe for intellectual progress. (but they were randomly selected). Researchers returned at the end of the school year and retested all the students and found that IQ of “intellectually ripe” students had increased more than the scores of their classmates. The teachers’ expectations had, in some way, caused the students to outperform their peers
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stereotype
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ideas about what members of different groups are like, influence the way we interact with these members; can be negative or positive; EX : New Yorkers are pushy and rude, Californians are easygoing and attractive
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prejudice
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undeserved, usually negative, attitude toward a group of people. Stereotyping can lead to prejudice
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ethnocentrism
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the belief that one’s culture (ethnic, racial) is superior to others; a specific type of prejudice; people see their own culture as the norm and that’s the standard by which they judge other cultures; EX looking down on people that don’t dress the same, eat the same food, or worship the same God as yourself