AP Psych Social Psychology Unit 14 – Flashcards

question
social psychology
answer
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question
attribution theory
answer
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
question
fundamental attribution error
answer
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
question
attitude
answer
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
question
central route persuasion
answer
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
question
peripheral route persuasion
answer
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
question
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
question
role
answer
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
question
cognitive dissonance theory
answer
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
question
conformity
answer
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
question
normative social influence
answer
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
question
informational social influence
answer
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
question
social facilitation
answer
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
question
social loafing
answer
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
question
deindividuation
answer
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
question
group polarization
answer
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
question
groupthink
answer
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
question
culture
answer
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
question
norm
answer
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
question
personal space
answer
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
question
prejudice
answer
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
question
stereotype
answer
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
question
discrimination
answer
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
question
ingroup
answer
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity
question
outgroup
answer
"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
question
ingroup bias
answer
the tendency to favor our own group
question
scapegoat theory
answer
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
question
other-race effect
answer
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
question
just-world phenomenon
answer
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
question
aggression
answer
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
question
frustration-aggression principle
answer
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
question
mere exposure effect
answer
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
question
passionate love
answer
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
question
companionate love
answer
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
question
equity
answer
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
question
self-disclosure
answer
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
question
altruism
answer
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
question
bystander effect
answer
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
question
social exchange theory
answer
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
question
reciprocity norm
answer
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
question
social-responsibility norm
answer
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
question
conflict
answer
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
question
social trap
answer
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
question
mirror-image perceptions
answer
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment
question
superordinate goals
answer
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
question
GRIT
answer
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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question
social psychology
answer
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question
attribution theory
answer
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
question
fundamental attribution error
answer
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
question
attitude
answer
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
question
central route persuasion
answer
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
question
peripheral route persuasion
answer
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
question
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
question
role
answer
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
question
cognitive dissonance theory
answer
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
question
conformity
answer
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
question
normative social influence
answer
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
question
informational social influence
answer
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
question
social facilitation
answer
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
question
social loafing
answer
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
question
deindividuation
answer
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
question
group polarization
answer
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
question
groupthink
answer
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
question
culture
answer
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
question
norm
answer
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
question
personal space
answer
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
question
prejudice
answer
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
question
stereotype
answer
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
question
discrimination
answer
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
question
ingroup
answer
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity
question
outgroup
answer
"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
question
ingroup bias
answer
the tendency to favor our own group
question
scapegoat theory
answer
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
question
other-race effect
answer
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
question
just-world phenomenon
answer
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
question
aggression
answer
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
question
frustration-aggression principle
answer
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
question
mere exposure effect
answer
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
question
passionate love
answer
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
question
companionate love
answer
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
question
equity
answer
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
question
self-disclosure
answer
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
question
altruism
answer
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
question
bystander effect
answer
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
question
social exchange theory
answer
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
question
reciprocity norm
answer
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
question
social-responsibility norm
answer
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
question
conflict
answer
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
question
social trap
answer
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
question
mirror-image perceptions
answer
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
question
self-fulfilling prophecy
answer
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment
question
superordinate goals
answer
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
question
GRIT
answer
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions.