AP Psych- Scientific Basis Essay

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Empricism
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the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
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Willhelm Wundt
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established the first psychology laboratory at the university of leipzig, germany
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Structuralism (Tichner)
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an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
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Functionalism (William James)
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a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable us to adopt, survive, and flourish
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Experimental Psychology
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the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
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Gastalt Psychology
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meaning “whole” or “pattern.” theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is much greater than simply the sum of its constituent elements. Gestalt psychologists believed that much of perception is shared on how we organize information in forms or wholes
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Behaviorism
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the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes (most agree with 1 and not 2)
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Humanistic Psychology
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historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
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Cognitive Neuroscience
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the inter-disciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, language)
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Psychology
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the science of behavior and mental processes
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Nature-Nurture Issue
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the controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
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Natural Selection
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among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
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Biophysical Approach
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Biological Influences: -natural selection -genetic predispositions responding to environment -brain mechanisms -hormonal influences Psychological Influences: -learned fears and learned expectations -emotional responses -cognitive processing and perceptional interpretations Social Cultural Influences: -presence of others -cultural, societal, family expectations – compelling models
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Biological Perspective
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one studying biological might study brain circuits or how heredity and experience influence our individual differences in temperament
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Evolutionary Psychology
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the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selections
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Psychodynamic Perspective
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a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
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Behavorial (learning) Perspective
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the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
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Cognitive Perspective
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someone might study how our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking
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Social Cultural Perspective
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someone might explore how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts
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Psychometrics
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the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
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Feminist Psychology
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a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequalities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes
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Basic Research
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pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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Developmental Psychology
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the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
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Educational Psychology
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the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
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Personality Psychology
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the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting
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Social Psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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Applied Research
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scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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Industrial/Organizational Psychology
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the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
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Human Factors Psychology
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the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
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Counseling Psychology
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a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
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Psychiatrists
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medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and others treat physical causes of psychological disorders
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Hindsight Bias
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the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, the one would have foreseen it
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How does overconfidence affect our judgements?
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overconfidence causes us to think we know more than we do so we tend to be more confident than correct
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Critical Thinking
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thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
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Theory
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an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
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Hypothesis
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a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
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Operational Definition
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a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. for example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
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Replication
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repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
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Case Study
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an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
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Longitudinal Studies
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a type of study in which on group of subjects is followed and observed for an extended period of time
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Survey
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a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
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How can wording effect survey outcomes population?
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wording can have major effects, because by the way one phrases a question might affect people’s expressed opinions
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Random Sample
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a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
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Representative Sample
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the sample “looks” like the larger population (i.e., age, gender)
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Naturalistic Observation
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a third descriptive method records behavior in natural environments
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Objective Tests (inventories)
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measure beliefs, feelings, behaviors of which an individual is aware; measure aptitudes, abilities, and values
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Projective Tests
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designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives
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Mode
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the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
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Mean
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the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
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Median
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the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
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Range
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the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
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Standard Deviation
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a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
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Normal Curve
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scores on aptitude tests tend to form a normal, bell-shaped curve
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Statistical Significance
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a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained test result occurred by chance
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Standardization
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defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
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Reliability
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the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting
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Content Validity
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the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
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Predictive Validity
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the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
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Correlation
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a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
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Correlation Coefficient
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a statistical index of the relationship between two things
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Scatterplot
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a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. slope suggests direction of the relationship between two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
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Positive Correlation
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if two sets of scores tend to rise or fall together
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Negative Correlation
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if two sets of scores relate inversely, one set going up as the other goes down
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Why do correlations fail to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships?
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correlation does not prove anything, you could assume low self-esteem caused depression but it could also be the other way around
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Illusory Correlation
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the perception of a relationship where none exists
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Why do we tend to perceive order in random sequences?
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we have a “rage for order” and we look for order even in random data
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Experiment
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a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more facts to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
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Random Assignment
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assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
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Double-Blind Procedure
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an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
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Placebo Effect
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experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
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Experimental Group (condition)
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in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
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Control Group
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in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
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Independent Variable
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the experiment factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
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Confounding Variables
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a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
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Dependent Variable
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the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
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Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
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lab experiments are intended to be a simplified reality and stimulates and controls features of everyday life but an experiments purpose is not to re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test theoretical principles. resulting principles, not specific findings explain everyday behaviors
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Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?
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culture are shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next and gender are similar in some respects and different in others. the same underlying process applies to an culture and gender
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Why do psychologists study animals and is it ethical to experiment on animals?
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psychologists study animals because they want to understand different species and how they learn, think and behave. many believe it is unethical especially animal protection because many die. opinions depend on culture. americans believe it is morally acceptable.
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Is it ethical to experiment on people?
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it is ethical to experiment on people because investigators always need informed consent, protect from harm or discomfort, treat information confidentially ad fully debrief people
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Informed Consent
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an ethical principle that research participants are told enough to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
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Debriefing
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explaining the research fully to people afterwards
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Is psychology free of value judgements?
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psychology is not value-free. values affect what we study, how we study it, and how interpret results. researchers values influence there choice of topics.
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Is psychology potentially dangerous?
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psychology can be potentially dangerous because psychology is knowledge. knowledge can be used for evil and be used to manipulate people.

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