AP Psych Sanchez CH 4 Development

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Explain why the correlation between authoratative parenting and social competence does not necessarily reveal cause and effect. In other words, what are some other explanations (besides the possibility that parenting style causes social competence)?
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Kids that are easy-going (and thus socially competent as adults) cause parents to become authoritative. Self-confident \”gene\” are passed on from parents to children and self-confidence correlates with both social competence and authoritative parenting.
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What was the specific relavance of Harry Harlow’s experiment?
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Social interaction is necessary for proper psychological development and soft, warm contact is more important than nourishment in forming an attachment.
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What evidence suggests that newborns are born to be social?
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They are born best able to focus on mother’s face, they prefer facelike images, they respond to human voice from birth, and recognize mother’s smell from birth
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We are born with nearly all the brain cells we will ever have.
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True
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All brain development is complete by birth.
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False
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Define schema.
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A concept for organizing information.
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Assume a person has the schema, \”Abstract art is easy to make; any child could do it.\” Then, they are confronted with a scenario in which they are asked to create abstract art and find that their painting is not very good.
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If they assimilate, they might think… I’m really incompetent. I’m having a bad day. If they accommodate, they might think… Abstract art is more difficult than I thought.
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Authoratative:
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Let’s talk about it. Parents who set standards and limits for children, communication is good with kids, reponsive to needs, very nurturing atmosphere, children expected to follow rules.
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Authoratarian:
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Because I said so. Strict parenting style
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Permissive:
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Ok.
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Give an example of how a baby would exhibit a lack of object permanence.
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When you put his pacifier under a blanket, he doesn’t look for it.
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How would a baby exhibit a self-concept?
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He touches his nose when you put a mark on it and put him in front of a mirror.
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A child saying \”that’s my star in the sky!\”
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Preoperational (he is egocentric but can talk)
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A child getting anxious if someone other than their parent holds them.
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Sensorimotor (this is stranger anxiety)
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The ability to do a liquid conservation test.
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Concrete operational OR formal operational
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The ability to pretend.
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At least preoperational, but they can continue still do this in concrete and formal.
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The ability to add, subtract, and do multiplication tables.
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At least concrete operational
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In what stage of moral development would the following comment be indicative: Can I \”buy\” their way into heaven by giving money to a church?
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Preconventional
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Erikson:
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Social
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Kohlberg:
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Moral
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Piaget:
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Cognitive
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According to these three theorists, at what stage of development would a fourteen year old be?
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Identity v. role confusion, post-conventional (maybe), and formal operational (probably)
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Rooting reflex
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reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek
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Newborn’s senses
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Reflexes and Motor Skills: Grasping, Rooting, Sucking
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Piaget’s stages
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Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs) Coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motoric actions. Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) Represents the world with words, images, and drawings. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) Logical, but concrete reasoning Have conservation at this point (water). Can classify items in groups, hierarchies, and subclasses. Formal Operational Stage (11+ yrs) Abstract thought Hypothetical possibilities Thinking about thought (metacognition) Inductive/Deductive Reasoning Thinking about the future.
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Harlow
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studied monkeys and found that feeding is not crucial for attachment but comfort is
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Kohlberg
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Amoral stage — 0-7 – personal needs need to be satisfied. Pre-conventional stage – 7-10 – learn rules to stay out of trouble. Conventional Stage – -By age 10, people should be moving to where morality means to follow the norms, values. In the Post Conventional Stage, people begin to reflect on the abstract of what is right or wrong. Most don’t reach this stage College appears to nurture this stage.
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Criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory
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differences between people only boys biased uneducated poor too cognitive based on justice people make decisions of relationships justice must be balanced by mercy
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Erikson’s stages
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1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 year) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 years) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years) 5. Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (12-18 years) 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood: 19-mid 20s) 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation/Self-Absorbtion (middle age: late 20s-50s) 8. Integrity vs. Dispair (old age: 60s and beyond)

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