AP Psych People

Alfred Adler
neo-Freudian; proposed the idea of the inferiority complex (based off of his childhood experiences

Mary Ainsworth
studied attachment differences by observing mother-infant pairs over a 6 mo. time period; found that
secure infants have good bonds with mothers and the reverse is also true

Gordon Allport
after meeting with Freud, he developed his theory on traits (trait perspective); he was less concerned
with explaining individual traits and more concerned with describing them

Eugene Aserinsky
discovered REM sleep accidentally; testing his EEG machine by placing electrodes on his son while
he slept

Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin
proposed the classic three-stage processing model of memory (sensory memory
to short-term memory to long-term memory)

Diana Baumrine
did studies on parenting styles; these studies helped to reveal that authoritative parenting led to
children with high self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence… those with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem, and those with permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature)

Aaron Beck
known for his use of the cognitive therapy approach

Lucio Bini & Ugo Cerletti
created the therapy Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in 1938

Paul Broca
French physician who reported that after damage to a specific area of the left frontal lobe (later called
Broca’s area), a person would struggle to speak words while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech

Mary Calkins
first accepted as a graduate student of William James; when all other students dropped because she was a
female, he tutored her alone. She went on to become a distinguished memory researcher and the APA’s first female president

Walter Cannon & Philip Bard
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion; the idea that the body’s response and the feeling of
emotion are experienced SIMULTANEOUSLY

Raymond B Cattell
Argued tht a g-factor does exist, but it consists of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence; was also a trait theorist

Noam Chomsky
argued (against Skinner) that our environment plays a bigger role in our language development; he
believed that language occurs naturally given adequate nurture

Paul Costa & Robert McCrae
did studies revealing differences as we age; believe that in some ways we all change
with age; also did trait studies; associated with the Big Five personality factors

Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart
Proposed 3 levels for encoding incoming information; they suggested whether we remember information for a few seconds or a lifetime depends on how deeply we process the information; structural, phonemic, & semantic

Dorthea Dix
an advocate of mental hospitals and humane treatment for the mentally ill

Herman Ebbinghaus
was to the study of memory what Pavlov was to the study of conditioning; used himself to test
memory by learning 3-consonant combinations; his findings were that the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning

Albert Ellis
co-editor of the Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change; developed Rational Emotive Therapy
(RET); focused on the ABC theory (A – the activating event, B – the person’s belief about the event, C – the emotional consequence that follows)

Erik Erikson
studied psychosocial development; stages include infancy, toddlerhood, preschooler, elementary school,
adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood; each stage is accompanied by a particular issue that must be resolved

Hans & Sybil Eysenck
describe personality using two dimensions (stable v. unstable and extrovert v. introvert)

Gustav Fechner
considered by some to be the founder of experimental psychology; studied afterimages but temporarily
lost his sight when using the sun to study them; wrote the book, Elements of Psychophysics, in which he argued that mind and body, thought to be separate parts of the body, are different parts of a single reality; inspired by Weber’s work with difference thresholds and jnd

Leon Festinger
proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance theory, the idea that we often bring our attitudes into line
with our actions

Sigmund Freud
psychoanalysis (his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques); used free-
association to delve into his patients’ unconscious; proposed 3 interacting systems of our conscience (id, ego, superego); psychosexual stages of development; defense mechanisms

Francis Galton
in his book, English Men of Science, stated “Nature is all that a man brings with him into the world;
nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth.”

John Garcia
challenged the idea that any association can be learned equally well; did research with lab rats and
radiation…his findings violated the notion that for conditioning to occur, the US must immediately follow the CS (the rats, when given radiation hours after tasting a particular flavor, avoided that flavor in the future); also tested other senses (sight and sound) and found the rats did not develop aversions to the other senses, only taste…this contradicted the behaviorists’ idea that any perceivable stimulus could serve as a CS

Howard Gardner
argued that we don’t have an intelligence, but eight multiple intelligences

Michael Gazzaniga
had experimented on cutting the brains of cats and monkeys with no serious ill effects to the
animals; his experiments revealed the significant purpose of the corpus callosum; did the HE●ART experiment with split-brain patients

Eleanor Gibson
developed the “visual cliff” experiment; showed that depth perception cues are innate

Carol Gilligan
studied gender differences; believes females differ from males both in being less
concerned with viewing themselves as separate individuals and in being more concerned with “making connections”

J.P. Guilford
Proposed that intelligence consists of 150 distinct abilities

G. Stanley Hall
one of the first psychologists to describe adolescence; described this time period as a time of “storm and stress”

Harry & Margaret Harlow
performed the attachment studies on monkeys; found that monkey’s preferred the non-nourishing cloth monkey to the nourishing wire monkey

Ewald Hering
developed the opponent-process theory; argued that yellow was just as much a primary color as red,
green, and blue

Ernest Hilgard
suggested the divided-consciousness theory for hypnosis; studies show that a hypnotic trance includes a “hidden observer” suggesting that there is some subconscious control during hypnosis

Karen Horney
neo-Freudian; believed our childhood anxiety, caused by the dependent child’s sense of helplessness,
triggers our desire for love and security; challenged Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy”; attempted to balance the masculine view of psychology (pg. 601)

David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel
Nobel prize winners that demonstrated that the visual cortex has feature detector neurons that receive information and respond to a scene’s specific features—to particular edges, lines, angles, and movements

Carroll Izard
isolated what he felt were 10 basic emotions, most of which are present in infancy; others have argued
that there are more, but he believes those other emotions are a combination of the 10 he’s identified

William James
a pioneer in American psychology and a prominent functionalist; encouraged explorations of down-to-
earth emotions, memories, will power, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness;

Arthur Jensen
Nature side of intelligence debate; argued that intelligence is approximately 80% due to heredity; he felt that difference in mean intelligence scores for different races, nationalities, and social classes was due more to heredity than to environment

Mary Cover Jones
an associate of behaviorist John B. Watson; used an exposure therapy to rid “Peter” of his fear of
rabbits; doing the opposite of what Watson had done with Little Albert, she sought to replace his fear of rabbits with a CR that is incompatible with fear

Carl Jung
neo-Freudian; emphasized the collective unconscious

Heinrich Kluver & Paul Bucy
surgically lesioned the part of a rhesus monkey’s brain that included the amygdala, thus
discovering the role that the amygdala plays

Lawrence Kohlberg
studied the development of moral reasoning; stages include preconventional, conventional, and
Postconventional

Wolfgang Kohler
demonstrated how we are not the only creatures to display “insight”; did an experiment with a caged
chimpanzee named Sultan

Stephen Kosslyn & Oliver Koenig
theory on consciousness; suggest that brain events are to consciousness what a guitar’s individual notes are to a chord; as a chord emerges from the interaction of different notes, so consciousness emerges from the interaction of individual brain events

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
wrote the book “On Death and Dying” where she describes the five stages of dying; those stages
are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

William Lange & Carl James
James-Lange theory of emotion; the idea that your body first responds to an event AND THEN you feel the emotion

Elizabeth Loftus
demonstrated the “misinformation effect” through her memory studies

Konrad Lorenz
studied the attachment process of imprinting on ducklings

Abraham Maslow
developed the hierarchy of needs; humanistic perspective

David McClelland
Found that people with a high need for achievement (nAch) tend to set goals of moderate difficulty;
they pursue goals that are challenging, yet attainable; they actively pursue present and future successes and are willing to take risks; they persist after repeated failures, plan for the future, and take pride in their success

William McDougall
Believed that instincts “the prime movers of all human activity”; identified 18 instincts including
parental instinct, curiosity, escape, reproduction, self-assertion, pugnacity, and gregariousness

Stanley Milgram
did the “teacher” test (administering electric shock for wrong answers) to test conformity and the
power of an authority figure

Walter Mischel
social-cognitive perspective; proposed situational specificity (behaving differently in different
situations); person AND situation variables are important in explaining behavior

Franz Anton Mesmer
Austrian physician; popularized mesmerism (now called hypnosis) in order to cure patients

George A. Miller
in studying short term memory, he “enshrined” recall capacity as the Magical Number Seven, plus or
minus two; (in reference to short term memory not only being limited to duration, but also capacity)

Egas Moniz
developed the practice of lobotomies and won a Nobel prize for his work

Franz Muller-Lyer
Müller-Lyer illusion; helps to explain our ability to perceive depth in our 3-D world

Henry Murray
developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); a series of ambiguous pictures designed to depict the
inner self

Isabel Myers-Briggs & Kathleen Briggs
attempted to sort people according to Carl Jung’s personality types; describes
people in complimentary terms

James Olds & Peter Milner (Olds & Milner study)
discovered a part of the hypothalamus that provides a pleasurable reward; accidentally discovered when trying to test the reticular formations of rats by placing electrodes on this region

Allan Paivio
his dual code theory suggests that information is better remembered when it is represented in both
semantic and visual codes because this allows for storage of both the word and image

Lloyd & Margaret Peterson
studied short-term memory; tested individuals by having them remember 3-consonant
groups and prevent rehearsal by having them count backwards from 100 in groups of 3; their findings were that without active rehearsal, short term memories have a short and limited life

Jean Piaget
studied cognitive development in children; stages include sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, and formal operational

Philippe Pinel
a reformer on the brutal treatment of mental patients; insisted madness was not a demon possession but a
sickness of the mind caused by severe stress and inhumane conditions

Robert Plutchik
Proposed that emotions evolved because they help a species to survive; he felt emotions are inherited
behavioral patterns & modified by experience; he believes there are 8 primary emotions (sadness, fear, surprise, anger, disgust, anticipation, joy, and acceptance)

Robert Rescorla
argued (along with Allan Wagner) that when two significant events occur close together in time, an
animal learns the predictability of the second event; the more predictable the association, the stronger the CR

Carl Rogers
humanistic perspective; believed in the idea of unconditional positive regard; used client-centered therapy and stressed genuineness, acceptance, and empathy; referred to his patients as “clients”

Hermann Rorschach
developed the Rorschach Inkblot Test; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings

Julian Rotter
social-cognitive perspective; believed personality is determined by a person’s generalized expectations
(GE) about future outcomes and reinforcements; He proposed locus of control

Paul Rozin
along with his colleagues, tested amnesia patients’ memories of previous meals; found that part of our
knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal

James Russell & David Watson & Auke Tellegen
describe emotion as two-dimensional (low arousal v. high arousal and pleasant v. unpleasant)

Sandra Scarr
nurture side of intelligence debate; she and other researchers have cited evidence supporting the environment’s role in improving IQ scores

Stanley Schacter & Jerome Singer
Schacter’s two-factor theory of emotion; the idea that the body responds simultaneously with a cognitive label and THEN we feel the emotion

Martin Seligman
did the learned helplessness experiment with dogs; showed the external locus effect in animals
(generalized to depression with humans)

Sir Charles Sherrington
British physiologist that inferred there must be a brief interruption in the transmission of neural
impulses, thus discovering synapses

B.F. Skinner
known for his work with operant conditioning; developed the operant chamber, also known as the Skinner box

Charles Spearman
studied intelligence; believed that there was a general intelligence or g factor; he believed that those
who scored high in one factor of intelligence would tend to score high on other factors

George Sperling
partial report procedure; believed more information enters our sensory memory than what enters our
short-term memory

Roger Sperry
first to propose “split-brain” surgery to help epileptic patients… but did so on animals, not humans

Robert Sternberg
agreed with Gardner on the idea of multiple intelligences, but proposed the triarchic theory which
distinguishes three, not eight, intelligences; analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

George Stratton
wore a radical pair of glasses that flipped right & left, up and down, for 8 days; tested perceptual
adaptation and found that his brain adjusted to the glasses and he could function normally by the 8th day

Lewis Terman
revised Binet’s intelligence test to make it more accommodating to American school children; called the Standford-Binet test

Edward Thorndike
known for his idea on the law of effect; became the basis of Skinner’s work

L.L. Thurston
an opponent of Spearman; did an experiment to try to discredit the idea of a general intelligence or g
factor, but his results actually helped to strengthen Spearman’s theory

Edward Tolman
demonstrated latent learning with a rat experiment

Philip Vogel & Joseph Bogen
two neurosurgeons; first to cut a corpus callosum of a human patient in order to reduce/eliminate epileptic seizures; the outcome… it worked!

Lev Vygotsky
believed that children become increasingly capable of thinking in words and of using words to work out
solutions to problems, doing this by no longer thinking out loud; they internalize their culture’s language and rely on inner speech

Margaret Washburn
first female to receive a psychology Ph.D. from Harvard (Calkins was previously denied the
degree); wrote an influential book called The Animal Mind; second female president of the APA

John B. Watson
viewed psychology as an objective science and urged his colleagues to discard reference to inner
thoughts, feelings, and motives; got many of his ideas from Pavlov’s study of classical conditioning; known for his ideas on behaviorism; also known for his controversial Little Albert experiment

Ernst Weber
noted that regardless of their magnitude, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion (not amount) for
their difference to be perceptible; difference threshold or Weber’s law

David Wechsler
an immigrant who was considered “feeble-minded” according to the Stanford-Binet; created the most
widely used intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); also created the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

Carl Wernicke
German investigator who discovered that after damage to a specific area of the left temporal lobe
(Wernicke’s area) people could speak only meaningless words (interpretation of the auditory code could not take place)

Benjamin Lee Whorf
Whorf’s hypothesis (linguistic determinism); the idea that people think differently in different
languages

Joseph Wolpe
psychiatrist who refined Mary Cover Jones’ (see her info above) technique into what has become the
most widely used method of behavior therapy (exposure therapies) around 1954

Wilhelm Wundt
noticed that we unconsciously shape auditory patterns (ie. tick-tock sound of a clock)

Thomas Young & Hermann von Helmholtz
Young-Helmholtz tri-chromatic theory; they knew that any color could be created by combining the light waves of three primary colors—red, green, & blue—so they inferred that the eye must have three types of color receptors, one for each primary color of light

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