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AP psych chpt 7 Essay

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alpha waves
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the relatively slow brain waves for a relaxed state
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amphetamines
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drugs that simulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions
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barbituates
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depress the activity of the central nervous system, reduce anxiety but impair memory and judgement
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circadian rhythm
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the biological clock, temperature and wakefulness in a 24 hour cycle
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convergence
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binocular cue for perceiving depth
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delta wave
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large brain waves associated with deep sleep
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consciousness
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awakeness of ourselves and our environment
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depressants
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drugs such as alcohol, barbituates, and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
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depth perception
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the ability to see objects in three dimensions
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dissociation
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a split in consciousness, allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
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dualism
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the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
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figure-ground
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organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
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gestalt
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an organized whole. emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
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hallucinogens
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psychedelic drugs like LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory imput.
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hypnosis
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a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
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insomnia
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recurring problems in falling or staying alseep
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latent content
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according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
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LSD
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a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)
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manifest content
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according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
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monism
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the presumption that mind and body are differen aspects of the same thing
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narcolepsy
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a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
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night terrors
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a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. night terros occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling alseep, and are seldom remembered
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opiates
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such as morphine and heroin, they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
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perceptual set
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a mental predispostion to perceive one thing and not another
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perceptual adapation
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in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
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psychological dependence
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a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
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REM sleep
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rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
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retinal disparity
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a binocular cue for perceiving depth. by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
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sleep apnea
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a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated monentrary awakenings
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stimulants
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drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstacy) that excites neural activity and speed up bodily functions
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THC
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the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
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tolerance
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the diminishing effect with regualr use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger are larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect
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visual capture
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the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
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visual cliff
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a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
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has a limited capacity, is relatively slow, processes information successively:
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conscious processing
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what was the study of consciousness replaced by for some time?
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the study of observable behavior
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the sleepwalking cycle follows a 24-hour clock called:
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the circadium rhythem
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what happens durring peak in cirrcadian arrousal?
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thinking is sharpest and memory is most accurate
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when do most older adults peak in cirrcadian arrousal?
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the morning
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resetting of a biological clock is facilitated by exposure to?
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bright light
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what does exposure to bright light trigger?
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triggers protein in the retinas of the eyes to signal the brain’s pineal gland to increase or decrease its production of melatonin
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suprachiasmatic nucleus
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the cluster of cells which control the circadian clock
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adenosine
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produced the longer we remain awake–tends to inhibant certain neurons and make us sleepy
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what is a second way of resetting our biological clock?
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adjusting our sleep schedules
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Psychoactive drugs that increase the production of the neurotransmitter GABA are called
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depressants
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Your breathing and heart rate increase during
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REM sleep
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When you are open to (blank), you may be more easily put in an altered state through _ (blank) than someone else who is less susceptible to conformity and obedience.
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the power of suggestion; hypnosis
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Altered states of consciousness most commonly occur when we do any of the following except
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concentrate
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Self-awareness refers to our
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knowledge of our separateness from other people
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Tolerance with a drug can cause
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addiction
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The idea that dreams are caused by brain activity during REM sleep activating parts of the brain is called
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activation-synthesis theory
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Which of the following affect psychological experiences by altering your sensory perception, moods, thinking and behavior?
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Psychoactive drugs
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Hypnosis is most effective with those who are
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open to suggestion
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LSD and mescaline are examples of
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hallucinogens
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Milton Erickson believed that hypnotism works by
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communicating with the unconscious mind
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The idea of consciousness suggests that we
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make choices and consider our actions
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Hypnotherapy can be used as an anesthetic because it can
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convince the patient he or she doesn’t feel pain
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What is circadian rhythm?
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A 24-hour cycle, or biological rhythm, that is linked to daylight and darkness.
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Your circadian rhythm is a cycle that lasts
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24 hours
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FILL IN THE BLANK _(Blank) allows us to maintain a sense of self that is separate from those around us. However, it is through our _ (Blank) that we choose to act, instead of just acting on the stimuli around us.
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Self-awareness; consciousness
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Stimulants include all of the following except
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alcohol
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The influence of a drug is impacted by all of the following except
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gender
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Which of the following statements is correct?
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Buying a dress at the mall and completing your math homework are both examples of conscious deliberate behaviors.
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Which of the following is not one of the four types of psychoactive drugs?
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Consciousness
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Some psychologists believe that nightmares may be beneficial because
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they can help us deal with difficult things in a safe place
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As you fall asleep, an electroencephalogram would show your brainwaves changing from
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rapid beta waves to slower alpha waves to even slower theta waves
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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs when
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we are dreaming
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Which of the following is not a stimulant?
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heroin
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Which of the following statements regarding the sleep cycle is not correct?
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After the REM stage, the cycle repeats itself in reverse order – from REM to Stage 4 to Stage 3. And after about 90 minutes of sleep, you enter Stage 2 sleep.
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In Freud’s theory of dreams,
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actual dream content is called manifest content and repressed desires are the latent content
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During the third and fourth stages of sleep, your brain produces
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delta waves
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Which of the following psychologists promoted more direct suggestions in hypnosis because they believed they were communicating with the conscious mind and that someone who was hypnotized was following suggestions because they were expected to?
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Theodore Barber and Nicholas Spanos
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Meditation has been shown to
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increase alpha and theta brain waves
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An example of a conscious deliberate behavior is
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calling your mother
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While out for a bike ride, you can think about what you’ll make for dinner rather than concentrate on how to operate the bicycle. This illustrates:
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parallel processing
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Carrie’s EEG shows sleep spindles. Which stage of sleep is she in?
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stage 2
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A modern theory of dreams suggests that dreams help us to fix the day’s experiences into memories. This is known as the ___________ theory of dreams.
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information processing
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The social influence theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that:
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A. behaviors produced through hypnotic procedures can also be produced without them.
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Consciousness
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currently defined as our awareness of ourselves and our environment, occurs in the normal states of seeing and hearing, reasoning and remembering, but also in the altered consciousness of sleep, hypnotic states, and chemically induced hallucinations.
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Stage 1 sleep
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often with the sensation of falling or floating
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Stage 2 sleep
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(the stage in which we spend the most time) follows about 20 minutes later, with its characteristic sleep spindles.
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Stages 3 and 4 sleep
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together lasting about 30 minutes with large, slow delta waves. Sleep also encourages growth; the pituitary gland secretes a growth hormone in Stage 4 sleep.
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paradoxical sleep (stage 5 sleep)
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we are internally aroused but outwardly paralyzed, About an hour after falling asleep, we begin approximately10 minutes of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, in which most dreaming occurs.
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As this up-and-down cycle repeats during a normal night’s sleep…
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periods of Stage 4 and then Stage 3 sleep progressively shorten and dreaming REM sleep lengthens.
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Describe the most common content of dreams:
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We usually dream of ordinary events and everyday experiences, 80 percent of them involving some anxiety or misfortune. Fewer than 10 percent of dreams (and less among women) have any sexual content. Most dreams occur derringer sleep; those that happen during non-REM sleep tend tube vague fleeting images.
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Freud believed that dreams …
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provide a safety valve, because their manifest content (or story line) is a censored version of latent content (some underlying meaning that gratifies our unconscious wishes).
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The information-processing perspective on dreaming is that…
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dreams help us sort out the day’s experiences and fix them in memory.
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Other physiological theories of dreaming propose that ..
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REM-induced regular brain stimulation helps develop and preserve neural pathways in the brain
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The activation-synthesis explanation of dreaming is that..
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REM sleep triggers impulses in the visual cortex, evoking random visual images that our brain tries to weave into a story line
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The brain-maturation/cognitive-development perspective believes…
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dreams represent the dreamer’s level of development, knowledge, and understanding.
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Name the main categories of psychoactive drugs, and list three ways these substances can interfere with neurotransmission in the brain:
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Depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens are the three main categories of psychoactive drugs. These substances interfere with neurotransmission by stimulating, inhibiting, or mimicking the activity of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) at synapses in the brain. The effects of psychoactive drugs also depend on the user’s expectations.
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Methamphetamine
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stimulant. highly addictive, and continued use may permanently reduce dopamine production.
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cocaine
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stimulant. blocks the reuptake of dopamine, nor epinephrine, and serotonin at synapses in the brain and gives users a 15- to 30-minute rush of intense high feelings, followed by a crash. Cocaine’s highly addictive, and its risks include cardiovascular stress and suspiciousness.
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ecstasy
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combined stimulant and mild hallucinogen. By releasing serotonin and blocking its reuptake at synapses, Ecstasy produces a euphoric high and feelings of intimacy. Its repeated use may suppress the immune system, disrupt the circadian clock, destroy serotonin producing neurons, and permanently damage mood and memory. Combined with physical activity, it can cause dehydration, leading to potentially fatal overheating.
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Describe the physiological and psychological effects of hallucinogens, and summarize the effects of LSD and marijuana:
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Hallucinogens, such as LSD and marijuana, distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. The user’s mood and expectations influence the effects of LSD, but common components are hallucinations and emotions varying from euphoria to panic. Marijuana’s main active ingredient, THC, triggers variety of effects, including disinheriting, a euphoric high, and feelings of relaxation, relief from pain, and intense sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells. It may also amplify feelings of anxiety or depression, impair motor coordination and reaction time, disrupt memory formation, and—because of the inhaled smoke in which it travels—damage lung tissue.
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Describe the near-death experience and the controversy over whether it provides evidence for a mind-body dualism.
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About one-third of those who have survived a brush with death, such as through cardiac arrest, later recall visionary near-death experiences. These sometimes involve out-of-body sensations and seeing or traveling toward a bright light. Dualists interpret these experiences as evidence of human immortality. Monists point out that reports of such experiences closely parallel reports of hallucinations and may byproducts of a brain under stress.
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At its beginning, psychology focused on the study of:
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consciousness
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As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following?
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focused attention sleeping hypnosis
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Consciousness is defined in the text as:
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our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
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Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that:
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conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.
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The sleep-waking cycles of young people who stay up too late typically are ________ hours in duration.
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25
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Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?
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genital arousal
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Concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points except:
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Slow-wave sleep provides a “psychic safety valve” for stressful waking experiences.
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One effect of sleeping pills is to:
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decrease REM sleep
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Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her college diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life—a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill’s dream.
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latent
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People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.
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information-procesing
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Which of the following is not a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
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Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation.
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According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents:
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the brain’s efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity.
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Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?
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There will be an increase in Barry’s REM sleep.
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The modern discovery of hypnosis is generally attributed to:
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Mesmer
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Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that:
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-for problems of self-control, such as smoking, hypnosis is equally effective with subjects who can be deeply hypnotized and those who cannot. -posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders. -as a form of therapy, hypnosis is no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis.
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As a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is:
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no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis.
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Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that “hypnotized” individuals are:
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merely acting out a role
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According to Hilgard, hypnosis is:
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a dissociation between different levels of consciousness.
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All of the following are common misconceptions about addiction, except the statement that:
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biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction.
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Alcohol has the most profound effect on:
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the transfer of experiences to long-term memory. NOT immediate memory
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How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on:
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-the dosage and form in which the drug is taken. -the user’s expectations and personality. -the situation in which the drug is taken.
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Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by:
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blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells.
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I am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. What am I?
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MDMA
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Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is true?
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The by-products of marijuana are cleared from the body more slowly than are the by-products of alcohol.
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Which of the following statements concerning alcoholism is not true?
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Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if they had an adoptive parent with alcoholism.
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The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by:
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black males
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Which of the following statements concerning the roots of drug use is true?
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It is nearly impossible to predict whether or not a particular adolescent will experiment with drugs.
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Which of the following was not suggested by the text as an important aspect of drug prevention and treatment programs?
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“scare tactics” that frighten prepubescent children into avoiding drug experimentation
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Which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true?
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They typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery.
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Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ________ sleep.
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stage 4
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Research most clearly disputes claims of:
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age regression
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Research on addictive drugs most clearly indicates that:
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most of America’s ex-smokers were able to kick the habit on their own.
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Narcolepsy is associated with a relative absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces:
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hypocretin