AP Psych Chapter 4 Development Exam

Substances from the environment, including viruses, drugs, and other chemicals that can damage the developing organism during the prenatal environment is called?

The innate predisposition of some species — especially birds — to form attachment to a figure observed at birth is termed?

Which of the following explains why avoidant children act unconcerned when they are separated from their mother in a strange situation?
They no longer seek attachment because their efforts have been met with rejection in the past.

Cognitive development refers to the study of the changing process….
for thinking, perceiving, and remembering.

Because Michelle has an idea that when she sees a dog it will eventually bark and chase a cat, Piaget would say that Michelle has
developed a schema for dogs

Assimilation is said to occur when a child…?
modifies new information to fit what is already known

Layla has been taken to the ocean for the first time. Upon initially seeing the ocean, she declares “pool”. Eventually she is able to understand that these are not the same, and she can distinguish between a pool and an ocean. After this insight occurs, Layla could be said to have demonstrated…?

The correct sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is…?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

Which of the following is an example of sensorimotor intelligence?
clinging, crying, and smiling.

_______ is a term used by Piaget to refer to a child who is unable to take another’s perspective and who sees the world only in terms of themselves

An individual who is able to understand the concepts of philosophy and calculus would be found in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
formal operational

The zone of proximal development explains…?
the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without help or guidance.

Research on parenting styles suggests that authoritative parents produce children that are…?
confident and self-reliant

The first stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory involves an infant’s need to…?
develop a basic sense of trust in the environment

Inadequate resolution of the _______ stage would result in a lack of self-confidence and a feeling of failure
generativity Vs stagnation

A child who refuses to steal candy because of a fear of being caught is most likely demonstrating…?
preconventional moralty

Kohlbery suggests that the highest stage of moral reasoning is evident when an individual acts in order to…?
promote the welfare of her society

Intimacy was defined by Erikson as the…?
exploration of one’s integrated identity

Psychologists have resolved the nature-nurture controversy by saying that we are the products of…?
both heredity and environment

Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called:

In regard to the nature-nurture controversy, most researchers…
are most interested in the interaction of nature and nurture

Habituation refers to the:
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience

The correct order of the three stages of human prenatal development is…?
zygote, embryo, and fetus

In synaptic pruning….
some neural networks are destroyed to ensure that others are working as efficiently as possible.

Compared with adults from Western Cultures that favor individualism, those from communal societies are less likely to develop _____ morality

Identical twins typically being to walk on the same day. This best illustrates the importance of ______ to motor skills.

An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with:

Preschoolers acquisition of a theory of mind suggests that Piaget overestimated young children’s:

Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of:
stability or change

Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person’s:
accumulated knowledge

A principle difference between a longitudinal study and a cross-section study is…?
the time span of the study

Harlow’s experiments with substitute mothers made of wire demonstrated the importance of what aspects of nurturing?

Which of the following explains why avoidant children act unconcerned when they are separated from their mother’s in strange situations?
they no longer seek attachment because their efforts have met with rejection in the past

Thor is playing in his crib when his beloved hammer falls under his crib…..
object permanence

which of the following is a serious problem in the practical application of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
Moral reasoning does not predict actual behavior

A child’s realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false illustrates the development of..?
a theory of mind

A researcher who administrates a personality test to the same child every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a ______ experiment?

People’s style of romantic love in adulthood are most likely to reflect their childhood:
attachment experiences

The fact that many people are happy and well adjusted adults were once rebellious…
stability or change

Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggerating….
stability of personality

There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her:
level of life staisfaction

Marriage bonds are especially likely to….
engage in more positive than negative interactions with eachother

Those who criticize theories of age linked…
the social clock

Explaining why the best work of scientists…
fluid and crystallized intelligence

Killing one person in order to save 5…
gut-level intuitions

Foster care the moves a young child…

Professor carter observes….

A correlation coefficient is
direction of strength of the relationship between two variables