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AP Psych Chapter 14- Social Psychology

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social psychology
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branch of psych that studies the effects of social variables and cognitions on indiviual behavior and social interactions.
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social context
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combination of people, activities, setting, expectations, and social norms governing behavior in that setting
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Stanford Prison experiment
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philip zimbardo randomly assigned college students to either be prisoners or guards to study the power of social situations. Experiment was ended by Christina Maslach
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situationism
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the view that environmental conditions influence peoples behavior as much as or more than their personal dispositions do example: job interview
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dispositionism
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tendancy to attribute behavior to internal factors, such as, genes, traits, and character qualities
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social role
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one of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting or group
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script
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cluster of knowledge about the sequences of events and actions expected to occur in a particular setting
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social norms
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groups expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members attitudes and behaviors
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emergent norm
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any group norm that develops from the group interaction and the mix of the group members’ personalities
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Theodore Newcomb
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Conducted an experiment demonstrating the influence of group norms. He found that over time people increasingly accept the norms of their community.
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Asch effect
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a form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgments
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Solomon Asch
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conformity; showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect ; in a famous study in which participants were shown cards with lines of different lengths and were asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length
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conformity
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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group think
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The tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion.
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Stanley Milgram
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obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions
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Bibb Latane and John Darley
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carried out a classic series of studies in order to demonstrate bystander intervention, seizure experiment created experiments about the difficulties bystanders faced in real life emergency situations -one was an experiment where a student was placed in a room with an intercom and could talk to other students. one student had a seizure. tested how long it took that student to respond -the more people they thought were listening the longer they took to react.
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diffusion of responsibility
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the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
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Ted Huston
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found personality traits do not distinguish poeple who helped and who didnt helpo the victim
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Tom Moriarity
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two studies, a thief snatched womans purse, and in the second people watched thief grab radio from blanket to test if people would do anything, and most did nothing, but some intervened. He proprosed that if you need help, ask for it
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social reality
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the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
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interpersonal attraction
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refers to positive feelings toward another who has something to offer us.
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reward theory of attraction
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the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
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principal of proximity
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the notion that people at work will make more friends among those who are nearby with whom they have the most contact
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similarity principle
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states that people are attracted to and perfer to spend time with others who hold attitudes that are similar to their own
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self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
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physical attractiveness
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people find it more rewarding to be with someone they find attractive
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matching hypothesis
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The view that people tend to choose other people similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships
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expectancy-value theory
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A theory in social psychology that people decide whether to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation of success in establishing the relationship.
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semper fildelis
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always faithful
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cognitive dissonance
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An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
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Leon Festinger and J Merrill Carlsmith
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had two groups of college students complete an extremely boring task with different payments; those with lower payment had greater enthusiasm; the men theorized that when attitudes are inconsistent with behavior, people are likely to experience an unpleasant state of tension called cognitive dissonance (cognitive dissonance theory)
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principle of reciprocity
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liking someone because you know they like you
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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self-serving bias
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the tendency to assign oneself credit for successes but to blame failures on external forces
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prejudice
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a negative attitude formed toward an individual or group without sufficient experience with the person or group
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in-group
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The group with which an individual identifies as a member
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social distance
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the perceived difference or similarity between oneself and another person
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out group
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Any group with which an individual does not identify
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scapegoating
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blaming an innocent person or a group for one’s own troubles
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social facilitaion
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improvement in an individuals performance because of the prescence of others
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social loafing
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The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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deindividuation
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when an individual seems to lose himself or herself in the group’s identity
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group polarization
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The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
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Irving Janice
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-group think, tendancy for members of cohesive group to maintain consensus to the extent of ignoring the truth
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romantic love
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a temporary and highly emotional condition based on infatuation and sexual desire
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triangular theory of love
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Sternberg’s theory that thee components-intimacy, passion, and commitment-singly, and in various combinations produce seven different kinds of love
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“Robbers cave” experiment
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prejudice, showed group conflict most effectively overcome by need for cooperative attention to a higher superordinate goal; 2 groups of 12-year-old boys, 3 phases of group dynamics: in-group phase (bonding with own group), friction phase (groups met and became competitive), and integration phase (work together for a common goal); formation of in/out-groups, and strategies for conflict resolution
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cohesiveness
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The degree of attraction members have to each other and to the group’s goal
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mutual interdependance
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A shared sense that individuals or groups need each other in order to achieve common goals
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terrorism
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the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political, economical, or religious goal
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Herbert Kelman
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Did research with Israeli-Palestinian workshops. Said we should bring community leaders togeter to discuss problems
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social validation
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the tendency to use other people’s behavior as a standard for judging the appropriateness of one’s own behavior
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Hawthorne Effect
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the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied
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Message variables
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one-side vs. two sided arguments
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recipient variables
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intelligence self-confidence mood`
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source variables
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creditability likeability similarity
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contact hypothesis
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The idea that stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases. Gordon Allport
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central route
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message elaboration; the path of cognitive processing that involves scrutiny of message content`
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peripheral route
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a method of persuasion characterized by an emphasis on factors other than the message itself
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stereotyoe threat
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the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype
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Claude Steele
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developed a theory that if you highlight a stereotype before someone takes a test, their performance affirms the stereotype Experiment: blacks vs. whites in and sat test (1995)
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S. J. Spencer
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did an experiement with males vs. females with english and math tests (1997)
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J. Stone Etal
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Did and experiemnt with whites vs. blacks and sports (1999)