AP Psych Ch. 12 Essay- Theories of Motivation and Emotion

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Theories of Motivation (8)
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Instinct Theory, Hull’s Drive Reduction Theory, Homeostatic Regulation Theory, Arousal theory, Solomon’s Opponent-Process Theory, Murray’s Theory of Needs, McClelland’s Achievement Theory, and Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
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James’ Instinct Theory
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motivation is inherited, species specific, and predictable (stereotyped)
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Hull’s Drive Reduction Theory
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we have the same number of basic physiological needs that create tension, causing drive
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Homeostatic Regulation Theory
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body’s desire to maintain equilibrium; body utilizes the negative feedback, a physiological mechanism where by the body monitors a response
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Yerkes-Dodson Arousal theory
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optimal performance comes at a state of moderate arousal; simple tasks go best with high levels of arousal and vice versa
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Solomon’s Opponent-Process Theory
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brains of mammals seek emotional neutrality
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Murray’s Theory of Needs
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needs form the core of personality. Individuals have differing levels of needs and the environment can change them
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McClelland’s Achievement Theory
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measure of need for achievement can predict the choices you’ll make
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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
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quest for self actualization represents growth toward fulfillment of the highest needs; physiological–> safety–>belonging–> self-esteem–> self-actualization
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Theories of Emotion (8)
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Plutchik’s Wheel, Common Sense Theory, James-Lange Theory, Cannon-Bard Theory, Schater’s Cognitive Theory, Facial Feedback Theory, Contemporary Theory, and the Cross Cultural Theory
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Plutchik’s Wheel
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we have 8 basic emotions (that can combine to form other emotions), and some examples are fear and joy
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Common Sense Theory
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emotions cause bodily arousal. Stimulus–>emotion–>automatic arousal and bxs
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James-Lange Theory
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emotions follow bodily arousal. Stimulus–>automatic arousal and bxs–>emotion
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Cannon-Bard Theory
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thalamus causes emotion and bodily arousal at the same time stimulus–>brain–> automatic arousal and bxs –> emotion
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Schater’s Cognitive Theory
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emotions occur when a label is applied to general physical arousal stimulus–>automatic arousal–>cognitive label–>emotion
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Facial Feedback Theory
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sensations from facial expressions and awareness of them leads to emotion >. anger 🙂 –> happy
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Contemporary Theory
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stimulus triggers cognitive appraisal stimulus –>cognitive appraisal–>ANS arousal –>behavior –>emotional expression –>feelings
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Cross Cultural Theory
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you can convey your emotion in any country based on faces

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