AP NSL Chapters 4 & 7

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Adversarial
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Involving conflict or opposition.
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Civic competence
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A belief that one can affect government policies.
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Civic duty
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A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
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Class consciousness
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Awareness of one’s own social status and that of others
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Equal opportunity
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The policy of treating employees and others without discrimination.
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Orthodox
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Religious and traditional.
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Political culture
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An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
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Political efficacy
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The belief that one’s political participation makes a difference.
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Political ideology
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A coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who should rule and how.
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Political tolerance
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An individual’s willingness to extend rights and liberties to people with whom they disagree.
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Progressive
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A person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties.
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Work Ethic (Protestant)
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A belief in the importance of hard work and personal achievement.
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Alexis de Tocqueville
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French observer who noted the influence of Democracy in a variety of contexts.
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True or false? The U.S. democratic republic has been tried without great success by many other countries.
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True.
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What does political ideology deal with?
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What the government should do.
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What does political culture deal with?
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How government should operate.
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What are liberty and individualism two key elements of?
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U.S. political culture.
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What are the basic elements of the U.S. political culture?
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Liberty, democracy, individualism, and civic duty.
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What was Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal referring to when he spoke of \”America’s dilemma\”?
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Race relations.
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True or false? Most Americans believe that everyone has the right to get ahead (equality of opportunity).
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True.
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True or false? Americans are most likely to tolerate economic as opposed to political inequality.
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True.
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Social policy in the United States is dominated by a common belief among Americans in the what?
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Ethic of self-reliance.
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True or false? Americans are most willing to help the elderly.
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True.
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Data in the text suggests that the average American is more likely than the average European to do what?
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Believe in God.
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Which religious group advocated constitutional amendments that would require prayer in public schools and ban abortion?
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Moral majority.
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Which group attracted an enormous amount of media attention and became a prominent force in many national, state, and local elections during the 1990s?
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Christian coalition.
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The adversarial, contentious spirit of the U.S. society is related most closely to American’s belief in what?
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Individual rights.
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Early competition between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans ended by establishing which principle?
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Democracy could survive a change of ruling parties.
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Religious diversity in the United States was largely the result of the absence of what?
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Established religion.
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The notion that individuals should work hard, save their money, and avoid dependence on the state is sometimes referred to as the what?
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Protestant work ethic.
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What is the most important source of political values in the United States?
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The family.
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Tales of youngsters who started out poor but became rich by dint of determination and hard work were associated with which author’s writings?
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Horatio Alger.
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What do Americans have a comparatively low degree of?
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Class consciousness.
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What is the culture war about?
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What kind of country we ought to live in.
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What is the orthodox view in the culture war?
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Morality is more important than self-expression and is based on unchanging rules from God.
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What is one of the ways in which the culture war differs from other political disputes?
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It is exclusively about what kinds of policies the government ought to adopt.
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What does the text define the two primary opposing camps in the American \”culture war\” as?
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The orthodox and the progressive.
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In a typical survey, the lowest percentage of Americans will say they have a lot of confidence in our what?
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Military.
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What do people believe in if they have a sense of political efficacy?
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That they have a say in what the government does.
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What is one’s own confidence in one’s ability to understand and take part in politics referred to as?
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Internal efficacy.
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What is one’s own belief about the responsiveness of the government referred to as?
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External efficacy.
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In the past generation, what has happened to Americans’ sense of political efficacy?
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It has declined for external efficacy and remained unchanged for internal efficacy.
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Americans’ sense of political efficacy compared to that of most Europeans seems to be what?
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Significantly higher.
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Cross cutting cleavages
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A division of people with differences that strengthens society.
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Gender gap
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Difference in political views between men and women.
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Party identification
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Voter affiliation with a political party.
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Poll
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The process of voting in an election.
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Random sample
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A sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
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Silent majority
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Middle americans that didn’t express their political opinion.
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Middle america
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Americans who moved out of poverty but are not affluent.
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What is the process by which citizens come to think everything they think about politics called?
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Political socialization.
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What best describes the concept of agents of political socialization?
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From whom people learn.
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Which agent of political socialization is most responsible for political party identification?
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The family.
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The critical age at which comprehension of political thinking becomes possible is what?
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12
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Why is violence on television not harmful to children?
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Children don’t always perceive acts as adults do.
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Public opinion in the United States is becoming increasingly what?
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Uniform from region to region and divided into regional subcultures.
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What type of political participation involves the most people in the United States?
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Following and discussing politics.
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Non-conventional participation is the term used to describe what?
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Riots.
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60 percents of adults adopt the party preference of whom?
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Their parents.
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A man who differs with his father on party identification is most likely to what?
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Describe himself as an independent.
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In recent years, the ability of the family to promote a partisan identification has what?
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Declined.
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What group of people were referred to as \”red diaper babies\” by commentators in the 1960s?
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College radicals who were the children of radicals.
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Religious influences on public opinion are most pronounced with respect to which issues?
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Social.
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Since the 1960s, what has happened to the voting behavior of women?
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It has remained unchanged.
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True or false? Men have \”deserted\” Democratic candidates for Republican ones.
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True.
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A gender gap is most likely to occur in an election in which the major issues is what?
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Gun control.
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The impact of a college education on one’s ideological predisposition may be mitigated by the fact that today’s graduates are what?
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Much less apt to read newspapers and news magazines.
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What have voters in the South become progressively less attached to?
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The Democratic party.
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What is a coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who should rule and how referred to as?
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Political ideology.
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What is political activism correlated with?
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Ideological consistency.
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One reason why members of a political elite are more consistent in their ideological beliefs than the aver citizen is that they are what?
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Better informed.

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