A&P Nervous System Study Guide

Neurons
Neurons
Nerve cell

Dendrites
Dendrites
Process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons

Axons
Axons
A nerve fiber; conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body

Nerves
Nerves
Bundle of nerve fibers

Nerve impulses
Nerve impulses
Depolarization and repolarization along a nerve fiber

Neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that an axon end secretes that stimulates a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse

Central Nervous system
Central Nervous system
The brain and the spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Parts of the nervous system outside the central nervous system

Sensory receptors
Sensory receptors
Specialized structure associated with the peripheral end of a sensory neuron specific to detecting a particular sensation and triggering a nerve impulse in response

Somatic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles

Automatic nervous system
Automatic nervous system
Part of the nervous system that controls the viscera

Synaptic cleft
Synaptic cleft
A narrow extra cellular space between the persynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

Ganglia
Ganglia
Mass of neuron cell bodies

Sensory function
Sensory function
Moitor internal and external environment

Integration function
Integration function
Information from the sensory nerves is integrated into the CNS by neurons

Motor output
Motor output
Stimulation of muscles and glands to moves and secrete substances

Cell body
Cell body
Contains the nucleus and organelles

Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord

Astrocytes
Astrocytes
Form connections between blood vessels and neurons.

Satellite cells
Satellite cells
Surround and control the chemical environment of the neuron.

Schwann
Schwann
Insulate the neuron form the myelin sheath

Microgial cells
Engulf microbes and remove waste

Oligodendrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Insulate neurons forms the myelin sheath.

Spinal cord
Spinal cord
Part of the CNS extending from the brain stem through the vertebral canal

Spinal nerves
Spinal nerves
Nerve that arises from the spinal cord

Reflexes
Reflexes
Raid automatic response to a stimulus

Brain stem
Brain stem
Portion of the brain that includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblengota

Cerebrum
Cerebrum
Part of the brain in the upper part of the cranial cavity that provides higher mental functions

Cerebellum
Cerebellum
Part of the brain that coordinates skeletal muscle movement

Olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerve
Pertaining to the sense of smell

Brain
Brain
The largest and most complex part of the nervous system

Optic nerves
Optic nerves
Cranial nerves that are sensory and lead from the eyes to the brain and are associated with vision.