A&P Nervous System Study Guide

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Neurons
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Nerve cell
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Dendrites
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Process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons
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Axons
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A nerve fiber; conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body
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Nerves
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Bundle of nerve fibers
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Nerve impulses
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Depolarization and repolarization along a nerve fiber
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Neurotransmitter
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Chemicals that an axon end secretes that stimulates a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse
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Central Nervous system
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The brain and the spinal cord
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Peripheral nervous system
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Parts of the nervous system outside the central nervous system
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Sensory receptors
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Specialized structure associated with the peripheral end of a sensory neuron specific to detecting a particular sensation and triggering a nerve impulse in response
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Somatic nervous system
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Motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles
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Automatic nervous system
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Part of the nervous system that controls the viscera
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Synaptic cleft
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A narrow extra cellular space between the persynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
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Ganglia
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Mass of neuron cell bodies
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Sensory function
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Moitor internal and external environment
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Integration function
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Information from the sensory nerves is integrated into the CNS by neurons
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Motor output
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Stimulation of muscles and glands to moves and secrete substances
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Cell body
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Contains the nucleus and organelles
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Central Nervous System
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Brain and spinal cord
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Astrocytes
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Form connections between blood vessels and neurons.
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Satellite cells
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Surround and control the chemical environment of the neuron.
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Schwann
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Insulate the neuron form the myelin sheath
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Microgial cells
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Engulf microbes and remove waste
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Oligodendrocytes
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Insulate neurons forms the myelin sheath.
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Spinal cord
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Part of the CNS extending from the brain stem through the vertebral canal
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Spinal nerves
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Nerve that arises from the spinal cord
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Reflexes
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Raid automatic response to a stimulus
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Brain stem
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Portion of the brain that includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblengota
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Cerebrum
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Part of the brain in the upper part of the cranial cavity that provides higher mental functions
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Cerebellum
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Part of the brain that coordinates skeletal muscle movement
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Olfactory nerve
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Pertaining to the sense of smell
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Brain
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The largest and most complex part of the nervous system
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Optic nerves
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Cranial nerves that are sensory and lead from the eyes to the brain and are associated with vision.

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