AP Lit: Poetic Devices

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denotation
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dictionary meaning(s) of the word
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connotation
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suggested beyond what is expresses
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imagery
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representation through language of sense experience
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auditory imagery
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image that represents a sound
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olfactory imagery
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image that represents a smell
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gustatory imagery
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image that represents a taste
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organic imagery
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image that represents an internal sensation (hunger, thirst, nausea)
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kinesthetic imagery
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image that represents movement or tension
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figure of speech
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any way of saying something other than the ordinary way
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figurative language
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language using figures of speech
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metaphor
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an implied comparison
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similie
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a comparison using a word or phrase (like, as, than, similar to, resembles, seems)
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personification
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giving human attributes to an animal, object, or concepts
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apostrophe
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addressing someone or thing that cannot answer back (someone absent, dead, nonhuman)
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synecdoche
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use of part to describe the whole
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metonymy
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the use of something related for the thing actually meant
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symbol
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something that means more than what it is
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allegory
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a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface
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paradox
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an apparent contradiction that is true
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overstatement
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exaggeration (describing something as more than it actually is)
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hyperbole (literary term)
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exaggeration
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understatement
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saying less than one meant
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verbal irony
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saying the opposite of what one means
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sarcasm
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bitter or cutting speech
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satire
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ridicule of human folly or vice (formal term used in literature)
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irony of situation
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discrepancy exists between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate
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dramatic irony
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discrepancy between what speaker says and what poem means
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allusion
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a reference to something in history or previous literature
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tone
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writer’s or speaker’s attitude about the subject, audience, or self
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alliteration
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repetition of initial consonant sounds (tried and true; safe and sound)
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assonance
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repetition of vowel sounds (mad as a hatter; time out of mind)
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consonance
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repetition of final consonant sounds (odds and ends; short and sweet)
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rhyme
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repetition of accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds
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masculine rhyme
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rhyme sound involves only one syllable (decks and sex; retort and support)
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feminine rhyme
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rhyme sounds involve two or more syllables (turtle and fertile; spitefully and delightfully)
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internal rhyme
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when one or more rhyming words are within a line
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end rhyme
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when rhyming words are at the ends of lines
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slant rhyme
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words with any sound similarity
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rhythm
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wavelike recurrence of motion or sound
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meter
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kind of rhythm we can tap our foot to
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verse
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metrical language
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prose
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nonmetrical language
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iamb
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unstressed stressed
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trochee
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stresses unstressed
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anapest
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unstressed unstressed stressed
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dactylic
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stressed unstressed unstressed
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spondee
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stressed stressed
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amphibrach
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unstressed stressed unstressed
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caesura
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a pause in the middle of a line (due to punctuation or natural phrasing/syntax)
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monometer
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one foot
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dimeter
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two feet
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trimeter
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three feet
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tetrameter
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four feet
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pentameter
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five feet
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hexameter
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six feet
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heptameter
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seven feet
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octameter
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eight feet
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scansion
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process of measuring verse
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free verse
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close to common speech
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euphony
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any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds
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cacophony
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harsh confusing disagreeable sounds
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continuous form
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lines follow each other without formal grouping
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stanzas
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repeated units having the same number of lines
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fixed form
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pattern that applies to whole poem
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limerick
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a humorous verse form of 5 anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme aabba
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Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
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eight lines, six lines
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octave
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eight lines
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sestet
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six lines
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english sonnet
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three quatrains and a concluding couplet

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