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AP Human Geography Unit VII Cities and Urban Land Use

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B) urbanization.
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The process of settlement formation, expansion, and change is called A) suburbanization. B) urbanization. C) post modern expansion. D) city growth. E) all of the above.
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A) high density, social heterogeneity, and large size.
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Three categories sociologist Louis Wirth used to differentiate between urban and rural areas include A) high density, social heterogeneity, and large size. B) high density, crime rate, and large size. C) large size, social heterogeneity, and crime rate. D) social networks, large size, and high density. E) diversity, large size, and poverty rate.
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A) the central city and its surrounding suburbs.
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The most practical definition for an urban area is A) the central city and its surrounding suburbs. B) the economic influence of the central city. C) the central city and the continuously developed areas. D) the central city and the land area inside the adjacent counties. E) the central city and its neighboring municipalities.
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A) to determine the geographical extent of influence for an urban area.
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The United States Census Bureau establishes Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) A) to determine the geographical extent of influence for an urban area. B) to legally define the boundaries of an urban area. C) to help marketing firms gather demographic data. D) to help establish urban growth boundaries. E) all of the above.
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C) city.
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An urban settlement that has incorporated into an independent self-governing unit is a A) metropolitan area. B) micropolitan statistical area. C) city. D) metropolitan statistical area. E) consolidated metropolitan statistical area
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E) All of the above.
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What advantage does a city gain by legally incorporating? A) Authority to tax. B) Responsibility to provide essential services. C) Ability to hold elections. D) Establish legally defined boundaries. E) All of the above.
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C) site characteristics.
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The physical qualities of the original location for a city is referred to as the A) relative location. B) locational determinants. C) site characteristics. D) situational characteristics. E) none of the above.
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B) the middle of a plain.
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All of the following are typical site and/or situational characteristics for the establishment of a settlement except A) the high point overlooking a river or plain. B) the middle of a plain. C) at the confluence of two rivers. D) the mouth of a river. E) on the shores of a natural harbor.
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C) states.
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In ancient Southwest Asia cities politically acted as A) empires. B) city governments. C) states. D) unincorporated entities. E) centers of culture.
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C) the Greco-Roman era.
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Historically, urbanization reached its zenith during A) the Bronze Age. B) the Egyptian Empire. C) the Greco-Roman era. D) the Persian Empire. E) none of the above.
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B) a chaotic haphazard layout.
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Street patterns of Medieval European cities resembled A) a grid system. B) a chaotic haphazard layout. C) curving streets inside a major grid network. D) a grid system with diagonal boulevards. E) none of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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This city was built purely as an administrative and/or commercial center by European powers. A) New Delhi. B) Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). C) Hong Kong. D) Nairobi. E) all of the above.
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B) they needed to locate close to transportation lines.
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Industries during the 1800s located close to Central Business Districts (CBDs) because A) it was closest to the expanding urban population. B) they needed to locate close to transportation lines. C) it had the highest range and threshold. D) of the availability of low-cost warehousing. E) that land was more affordable.
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E) Southwestern United States.
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Auto-centered cities emerged during the post World War II era in A) Eastern North America. B) Northwestern Europe. C) Central Japan. D) Upper Midwest. E) Southwestern United States.
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A) The city was an economic pull.
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During the Industrial Revolution, what factor contributed the most to rapid urbanization? A) The city was an economic pull. B) The city was a political pull. C) The city was an environmental pull. D) The city was a cultural pull. E) All of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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What factor is responsible for explosive urban growth in the developing periphery? A) Rapid population growth. B) Lack of opportunity in rural areas. C) Difficulty of providing for one’s family. D) Real and/or perceived economic opportunity in cities. E) All of the above.
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E) A and B only.
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According to Brian Berry, people who are a part of a “daily urban system”, supported by functional regions connected to urban hubs by commuter links, have access to a plethora of services in A) more developed countries. B) the United States. C) lesser developed countries. D) newly industrialized countries. E) A and B only.
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A) World city, specialized producer service center, command and control center, dependent center.
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Choose the proper hierarchy of cities in the United States. A) World city, specialized producer service center, command and control center, dependent center. B) Command and control center, specialized producer service center, dependent center, world city. C) World city, command and control center, specialized producer service center, dependent center. D) World city, dependent center, specialized producer service center, command and control center. E) Specialized producer service center, world city, command and control center, dependent center.
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A) Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara.
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Choose the proper hierarchy of cities on the West Coast of the United States. A) Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara. B) Los Angeles, Seattle, San Francisco, Sacramento, San Diego, Santa Barbara. C) Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Sacramento, Santa Barbara. D) Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, Sacramento, Santa Barbara. E) Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Sacramento
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E) 250,000.
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What is the population of the fourth largest city in a country where the rank-size rule applies if the largest city is one million in population? A) 1,000,000. B) 750,000. C) 500,000. D) 300,000. E) 250,000.
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B) when the largest city in a country is twice the size of the next largest city
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A primate city is A) the most important city in a country. B) when the largest city in a country is twice the size of the next largest city. C) when the largest city in an LDC has a primitive infrastructure. D) the largest city in a region of a country. E) when the largest city is located on the periphery.
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E) All of the above.
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What concerns are there for a developing country if the rank-size rule does not apply? A) Services will be clustered in the primate city. B) Services will not be evenly distributed through out the country. C) Smaller cities find it difficult to compete for services with the primate city. D) People in rural areas and small cities feel compelled to migrate to the primate city for jobs. E) All of the above.
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B) New York, London, and Tokyo.
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The three most important cities in the world are A) New York, Paris, and Shanghai. B) New York, London, and Tokyo. C) New York, London, and Beijing. D) New York, Paris, and Tokyo. E) New York, Rome, and Shanghai.
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C) North America and Europe.
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The two continents that have the most linkages between their world cities are A) Asia and Australia. B) Asia and North America. C) North America and Europe. D) Europe and Asia. E) North America and South America.
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C) Australia.
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The continent with the least number of world cities is A) Africa. B) South America. C) Australia. D) Europe. E) Asia.
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A) Least Developed Countries (LDC) cities make up a larger percentage of the top ten.
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How has the composition of the world’s top ten most populated cities changed since 1950? A) Least Developed Countries (LDC) cities make up a larger percentage of the top ten. B) The percentage of LDC cities has declined since 1950. C) More Developed Countries (MDC) cities in the top ten have grown substantially in size since 1950. D) Since 1950 more MDC cities have moved into the top ten. E. None of the above.
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E) A and B only.
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What factor(s) have contributed to the rapid urbanization in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) since 1950? A) Cities provide opportunity for displaced rural residents. B) Explosive population growth has made it difficult for subsistence farmers to support their families. C) Cultural amenities attract large number of young urban professionals. D) All of the above. E) A and B only.
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E) lack of recreation facilities for inner city youth.
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The following are major challenges confronting mega cities in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) except A) high crime rates. B. increasing poverty rates. C) lack of adequate sanitation facilities. D) lack of adequate housing. E) lack of recreation facilities for inner city youth.
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E) all of the above.
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Challenges for mega cities in More Developed Countries (MDCs) include A) overcrowding. B) infrastructure maintenance. C) crime. D) pollution. E) all of the above.
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E) South America.
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The most urbanized region in the developing world is A) South Asia. B) China. C) North Africa. D) Southeast Asia. E) South America.
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A) a megalopolis.
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In the United States overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) eventually lead to conurbanaization or A) a megalopolis. B) a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. C) many Micropolitan Statistical Areas. D) cooperative regional council of governments. E) none of the above.
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C) New Delehi to Mumbai.
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All of the following are major world megalopolises except A) Boston to Wahington D.C. B) Tokyo to Yokahama. C) New Delehi to Mumbai. D) Los Angeles to Tijuana. E) Chicago to Pittsburgh.
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B) barrios
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Favelas is to Brazil as ________ is to Mexico. A) squatter settlements B) barrios C) bidonvilles D) barung-barong E) slums
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D) on the outskirts of the urban area.
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Squatter settlements in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) cities are usually located A) in the zone in transition. B) adjacent to industrial areas. C) in warehouse districts. D) on the outskirts of the urban area. E) along major highways.
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C) a gateway city
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From 1400-1700 many European powers established ___________ , which served as an entrance to or exit from a conquered area. A) a colonial city B) an administrative center C) a gateway city D) an outpost E) provisional government
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C) Hexagon.
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What geometric pattern is associated with Christaller’s Central Place Theory? A) Square. B) Circle. C) Hexagon. D) Octagon. E) Pentagon.
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E) All of the above.
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What assumption(s) are in Christaller’s Central Place Theory? A) A flat isototropic plane with no physical barriers. B) Uniform soil fertility. C) Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed. D) Uniform transportation system in all directions. E) All of the above.
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A) Central Place Theory.
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Large cities are economic hubs with radiating connections for commerce according to A) Central Place Theory. B) Rostow’s Model of Development. C) the Burgess Model. D) the Peripheral Model. E) von Thunen’s Model.
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D) threshold.
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The minimum number of people needed to support a business is called the A) range. B) peak land value intersection. C) economic base of settlements. D) threshold. E) minimum population requirement.
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A) range.
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The maximum distance a person is willing to travel to frequent a service is called the A) range. B) economic distance. C) threshold. D) spatial shopping behavior. E) geographic marketing area.
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A) Soft drink, bakery, shoe store, auto dealership.
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Rank the following services from low to high order. A) Soft drink, bakery, shoe store, auto dealership. B) Bakery, shoe store, soft drink, auto dealership. C) Shoe store, soft drink, bakery, auto dealership. D) Auto dealership, shoe store, bakery, soft drink. E) Auto dealership, soft drink, shoe store, bakery.
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B) industry and manufacturing.
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The economic base of many cities in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois is A) tertiary. B) industry and manufacturing. C) financial services. D) tourism. E) wholesale trade.
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E) A and B only.
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The economic base of many cities in the Rocky Mountain West includes A) mining. B) recreation and tourism. C) manufacturing. D) business services. E) A and B only
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B) the multiplier effect.
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The economic expansion or contraction due to the introduction or loss of a major employer in a particular location is called the A) basic industrial sector. B) the multiplier effect. C) non-basic segment of the economy. D) the tertiary sector. E) globalization of the economy.
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E) Industrial Revolution
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Cites significantly increased their population size in Europe and North America during the A) later Medieval Ages. B) height of the Roman Empire. C) post World War II. D) the roaring 20s. E) Industrial Revolution.
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C) along transportation lines
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Geographically, cities expanded outwards prior to the automobile by growing A) more densely. B) uniformly in all directions. C) along transportation lines. D) only to their legal boundaries. E) in the wealthy sector from the CBD to the periphery.
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B) Peripheral Model.
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Which urban model best explains the spatial impact of automobiles and the construction of interstate highways on metropolitan areas in the United States? A) Concentric Zone Model. B) Peripheral Model. C) Hoyt’s Sector Model. D) Multi Nuclei Model. E) Lifestyle Model.
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E) All of the above.
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What happened to inner city neighborhoods when many industries shifted geographic location to the suburbs after World War II? A) Neighborhoods declined in population. B) The housing stock deteriorated. C) Unemployment rates increased for inner city residents. D) Business services declined for inner city residents. E) All of the above.
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B) Develop health, research, and personal service sectors.
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How have industrially-based cities in the Northeastern United States attempted to combat the loss of jobs from the relocation of industries to suburbs and to Least Developed Countries (LDCs)? A) Invest heavily in community outreach programs. B) Develop health, research, and personal service sectors. C) Develop tourism. D) Invest in vocational training. E) Rely on immigrant labor for business growth.
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E) all of the above.
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Rapid growth of cities in the Sunbelt of the United States took place after World War II because of A) home air-conditioning. B) widespread automobile ownership. C) environmental pull of warm winters. D) non-unionized labor was an economic pull for businesses. E) all of the above.
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D) Sun Belt.
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In which region of the United States have many cities been able to move up the urban hierarchy by increasing higher order goods and services due to explosive population growth? A) Rust Belt. B) New England. C) Pacific Northwest. D) Sun Belt. E) Upper Midwest.
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D) by building business parks.
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Various cities in North America have used all of the following strategies to revitalize their central business districts except A) by creating pedestrian malls downtown, such as Denver, Colorado, and Eugene, Oregon. B) by building major urban renewal projects. C) by building major sports facilities, such as Camden Yards in Baltimore and Coors Field in Denver. D) by building business parks. E) by turning vacant industrial buildings and warehouses into residential lofts.
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A) filtering.
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When inner city neighborhood property values decline, owners of large older homes often subdivide the home into multiple units. This process is known as A) filtering. B) gentrification. C) redlining. D) blockbusting. E) urban renewal.
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E) “white flight.”
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Blockbusting in the 1950s often contributed to A) stabilization. B) gentrification. C) in-fill development. D) urban renewal. E) “white flight.”
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D) redlining
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A bank would be engaging in ___________ if they would not grant mortgages to customers in certain neighborhoods or zip-codes. A) blockbusting B) down zoning C) ghettoization D) redlining E) filtering
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C) gentrification.
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Young single recent college graduates who move into distressed inner city neighborhoods and refurbish their new residences would be an example of A) blockbusting. B) filtering. C) gentrification. D) white flight. E) none of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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Who is most likely to move into revitalized urban downtown area neighborhoods? A) White collar empty nesters. B) Young urban professionals (yuppies). C) Recent college graduates. D) Double income no kids households (dinks). E) All of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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One would expect to find a population pyramid with few senior citizens and people in the 25-29 age cohort in A) exurbs. B) commuter’s zone. C) bedroom communities. D) dormitory towns. E) all of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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This age cohort is well represented in upscale wealthy suburban communities. A) 10-14. B) 15-19. C) 40-44. D) 49-50. E) All of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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The economic base of many cities changed in the post-industrial era from A) industrial to business services. B) industrial to consumer services. C) industrial to public services. D) industrial to health services. E) all of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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Due to the changing nature of a city’s economic base in North America, what activities and land uses have declined in and around the Central Business District (CBD)? A) Manufacturing. B) Residential. C) Major department stores. D) Warehousing. E) All of the above.
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B) festival market places.
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Bayside in Miami, Faneuil Hall in Boston, Riverwalk in San Antonio, and Pike Street Market in Seattle, all serve as A) urban parks. B) festival market places. C) service orientated centers. D) lifestyle shopping malls. E) urban interface zones.
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B) a festival market place
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Many cities in North America have designed and set aside areas where outdoor concerts, street performers, ethnic events, farmers markets, and cart vendors come together and act as a positive focal point economically and socially for urban life. This recent trend is often referred to as A) an urban park. B) a festival market place. C) a service oriented center. D) a lifestyle mall. E) an urban interface zone.
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D) all of the above.
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Urban models attempt to explain A) why particular patterns exist in urban areas. B) why people are not randomly distributed throughout an urban area. C) where people with particular characteristics live. D) all of the above. E) A and B only.
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E) Concentric Zone Model.
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A city grows outward from a central location in a series of rings in the A) Sector Model. B) Multiple Nuclei Model. C) Hoyt Model. D) von Thunen Model. E) Concentric Zone Model.
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C) zone of transition.
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According to the Burgess model, the housing stock is most deteriorated and a sizable percent of residents are immigrants in the A) zone of better residents. B) Central Business District (CBD). C) zone of transition. D) zone of independent workers. E) zone of urban renewal.
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E) the commuter zone.
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According to the Burgess Model of Urban Development, the outer most ring is the A) extensive agriculture. B) extensive commercial agriculture. C) the zone of better residences. D) the zone of transition. E) the commuter zone.
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C) adjacent to the industrial and transportation corridor.
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In Hoyt’s Sector Model lower income neighborhoods are usually located A) in a wedge that extends from the CBD to the suburbs. B) on the east side of the city. C) adjacent to the industrial and transportation corridor. D) north of the Central Business District (CBD). E) in the first ring around the CBD
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B) High-class residential areas don’t change much over time.
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What did Hoyt’s research uncover regarding the highest social class district in a city? A) High-class neighborhoods were susceptible to ghettoization. B) High-class residential areas don’t change much over time. C) High-class residential areas went through a process of decline and deterioration. D) Gentrification improved the property values of the high-class residential sector. E) High-class residential sector migrated towards the west.
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B) Multiple Nuclei Model.
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Large cities develop many nodes around which different types of people and activities cluster. This describes the A) Peripheral Model. B) Multiple Nuclei Model. C) Latin American Model. D) Sector Model. E) Concentric Zone Model.
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E) All of the above.
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In Chauncy Harris and Edward Ulman’s Multiple Nuclei Model which of the following are nodes of activities? A) University centers. B) Hospital centers. C) Airport and transportation centers. D) Central business district. E) All of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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The major distinction between the multi nuclei and the peripheral model is that A) the peripheral model was designed by Chauncey Harris. B) the peripheral model highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation. C) the peripheral model adds a beltway that circumnavigates the urban area. D) the peripheral model incorporates edge cites. E) all of the above.
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A) highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation.
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The major advantage of the peripheral model over other urban models is the fact that it A) highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation. B) explains why inner city neighborhoods decline. C) explains why low-income housing is adjacent to industrial sectors. D) explains the importance of multiple centers of activity in an urban area. E) explains why the high income district extends from the CBD to the periphery.
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B) on either side of the main boulevard that leads to the CBD.
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The elite residential section in the Latin American Model is located A) along the outside where there is less crime. B) on either side of the main boulevard that leads to the CBD. C) in a ring around the CBD. D) in the western suburbs. E) in gated communities on either side of the CBD.
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A) Squatter settlements.
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What type of land use dominates on the periphery of the Latin American Model? A) Squatter settlements. B) Industrial activity. C) Elite residential. D) Commercial. E) Middle class residential.
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D) North America.
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Grid street patterns are most typical for cities in A) Europe. B) South Asia. C) Latin America. D) North America. E) Southeast Asia.
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A) chaotic with few streets meeting at right angles.
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Inside the wall of Medieval European cities street patterns are best described as A) chaotic with few streets meeting at right angles. B) on an extensive grid system. C) carefully planned with diagonal boulevards. D) circular in nature. E) none of the above.
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C) sprawl.
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The land use pattern of auto-dominated cities is best characterized by A) the hub and spoke pattern. B) the grid system. C) sprawl. D) transit-oriented development. E.) new urbanism.
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E) automobiles.
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Even though land use in North American Central Business Districts (CBDs) is characterized by skyscrapers and high-density uses, a sizable percentage of land is still devoted to A) recreation. B) arts and entertainment. C) museums. D) industry. E) automobiles.
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A) They use less land area in congested urban areas.
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What geographic advantages do mass transit systems such as subways and light rail have over automobiles? A) They use less land area in congested urban areas. B) They provide transportation for those who do not drive. C) They reduce air pollution in urban areas. D) They concentrate development along fixed routes and stops. E) All of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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What factor(s) contributed to the proliferation of suburbs in America during the post World War II era? A) Brown v. Board of Education. B) Federal government programs. C) Low-interest GI mortgage loans. D) Demographic shifts. E) All of the above.
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E) A and C only.
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When comparing urban models for North American and European cities, what is the difference between where high-class residential neighborhoods area located? A) In European cities they are located near the Central Business District (CBD). B) Both have high-class residential areas adjacent to the main boulevard leading into the CBD. C) In North American cities they are typically located on the outskirts of the metro area. D) Both have wealthy neighborhoods scattered through out the city. E) A and C only.
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E) A and C only.
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Visually, the main difference between cities in North America and Europe is that there A) is a prevalence of skyscrapers in North American cities. B) are more lower income neighborhoods in European cities. C) are fewer skyscrapers in European cities. D) all of the above. E) A and C only.
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C) the poor living along the outskirts of the city.
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Geographically, cities in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Europe both have A) industry located near the Central Business District (CBD). B) large areas with substandard housing exist in both areas. C) the poor living along the outskirts of the city. D) job training programs for unskilled workers that are under-funded. E) all of the above.
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D) transit-orientated development.
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Mixed land use with high-density housing options located near light rail and subway stops is referred to as A) down zoning. B) covenant communities. C) urban renewal. D) transit-orientated development. E) multi-modal development.
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E) the process of a city legally adding more land.
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Annexation is A) the process of removing underclass residents from inner city neighborhoods. B) the process of wealthy individuals settling into neighborhoods near the CBD. C) the process of an unincorporated area legally defining its boundaries. D) the process of establishing business parks in suburban communities. E) the process of a city legally adding more land.
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B) flagpole annexation.
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Chicago incorporated land beyond its city limits to build O’Hare International Airport in the 1960s. This is an excellent example of A) urban renewal. B) flagpole annexation. C) antecedent boundary changes. D) subsequent boundaries changes. E) regional council of government intervention.
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D) all of the above.
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Political geography can make it more difficult for metropolitan governments to solve regionally based problems because A) competing municipalities often have conflicting interests. B) political boundaries make it difficult for regional governments to exercise authority. C) each city has its own unique government. D) all of the above. E) none of the above.
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E) All of the above.
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What problems do metro area municipalities find it difficult to solve without regional governmental agencies? A) Air pollution. B) Traffic congestion. C) Solid waste disposal. D) Affordable housing. E) All of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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Government solutions that help solve regional metropolitan issues include A) establishing cooperative agencies , such as a council of governments. B) forming a federation of municipalities like Toronto. C) consolidations where governments share services. D) altering political boundaries so city and county boundaries coincide. E) all of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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The “city beautiful movement” of the late 19th century was a response to A) over-crowded inner-city tenements. B) excessive pollution during the industrial era. C) citizens’ need for urban green spaces. D) communities’ need to have clean air. E) all of the above.
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C) urban renewal.
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The identification of blighted urban neighborhoods and the subsequent removal of residents and demolition of deteriorated buildings with the construction of new buildings, highways, and other large construction projects is commonly known as A) gentrification. B) urban rezoning. C) urban renewal. D) urban transitional planning. E) smart growth.
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A) smart growth.
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Urban growth boundaries are most commonly associated with the movement known as A) smart growth. B) new urbanism. C) transit oriented development. D) urban renewal. E) low density development.
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A) wide streets with cul-de-sacs.
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The basic tenants of new urbanism include all of the following except A) wide streets with cul-de-sacs. B) mixed use of residential and commercial venues. C) creating a center for shopping and social events. D) mixed housing types and densities. E) the return of front porches and alleyways.
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B) street-car suburbs of the 1920s.
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New urbanism is based upon land use trends from A) 1950s auto suburbs. B) street-car suburbs of the 1920s. C) 1990s gated communities. D) 1880s urban industrial era. E) 19th century tenement neighborhoods.
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B) a lack of social and economic diversity.
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Inner city neighborhoods face all of the following challenges except A) a deteriorating housing stock. B) a lack of social and economic diversity. C) increased homelessness and crime. D) a growing underclass that is unable to function in society. E) a culture of poverty
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A) economic, social, and physical.
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Inner city challenges fall into three basic categories, which are A) economic, social, and physical. B) economic, social, and environmental. C) economic, physical, and environmental. D) social, environmental, hierachical. E) environmental, physical, and racial.
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D) construct more residences downtown.
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In the last twenty years the most successful strategy to revitalize central business districts and inner city neighborhoods has been to A) create festival market places. B) build life style malls. C) construct athletic complexes. D) construct more residences downtown. E) encourage more businesses to locate in the area.
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E) A and B only.
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Suburban developments suffer from A) a lack of diversity. B) social isolation. C) a lack of green space. D) deteriorating schools. E) A and B only.
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C) Inner ring suburbs of the 1950s.
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Since the United States has become a suburban country, what part of suburbia is now experiencing many of the challenges faced by poor urban neighborhoods? A) New boomburbs. B) Edge cities. C) Inner ring suburbs of the 1950s. D) Middle era suburbs of the 70s and 80s. E) None of the above.
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A) sprawl.
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Unrestricted low-density development of residential and commercial activities over a large expanse of land is A) sprawl. B) new urbanism. C) transit oriented development. D) characteristic of European countries. E) smart growth.
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B) increased green belts.
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All of the following are negative environmental consequences of suburban sprawl except A) increased air pollution. B) increased green belts. C) increased traffic congestion. D) loss of biodiversity. E) loss of prime agricultural land.
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E) Land gets more expensive.
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According to the classic bid-rent curve, what happens to the value of land as one gets closer to the Central Business District (CBD)? A) Land gets more affordable along busy streets. B) Land gets more affordable in distressed neighborhoods. C) Land gets used more extensively. D) Land gets used less intensively. E) Land gets more expensive.
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A) The density gradient might return to a pattern similar to the 1950s.
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Potentially, how could gentrification of city neighborhoods alter the density gradient of an urban area? A) The density gradient might return to a pattern similar to the 1950s. B) The density gradient would not be impacted by gentrification. C) The density gradient would become less severe. D) Gentrification could continue to contribute to the decline of inner core neighborhoods. E) None of the above.
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E) all of the above.
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Since the 1950s, most North American metropolitan areas have A) lost population in the central core. B) continued to expand farther out from the Central Business District (CBD). C) experienced increased population density in the inner ring of suburbs. D) experienced a significant change in the density gradient. E) all of the above.
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A) at the intersection of interstate highways.
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Edge cites typically develop in major metropolitan areas A) at the intersection of interstate highways. B) where land is most readily available. C) where land is least expensive. D) in the zone of independent workers. E) in the high income sector.
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E) they make it easier for traffic planners to design mass transit systems.
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All of the following describe edge cites except A) they are more convenient places of employment for newer suburban communities. B) they physically resemble a city, because of the prevalence of tall office buildings. C) they typically are located at the intersections of highways. D) other uses such as shopping malls and apartment complexes are also present. E) they make it easier for traffic planners to design mass transit systems.
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B) counterurbanization.
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The recent trend of metropolitan residents moving to rural areas and small towns is referred to as A) out-migration. B) counterurbanization. C) push factors. D) interregional migration. E) none of the above.
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B) a greenbelt around the city.
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Since London, England is a primate city, planners attempted to slow down the growth of greater London by creating A) an urban growth boundary commission. B) a greenbelt around the city. C) increasing taxes and fees to discourage new suburban development. D) edge cities. E) providing incentives for people to live in inner city neighborhoods.
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D) the land is less expensive.
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Housing developers primarily purchase land for new projects that is not adjacent to the continuously built up urban area, because A) the land is more accessible to interstate highways. B) the land provides better scenic views for potential residents. C) the developer has more control over how to design the community. D) the land is less expensive. E) all of the above.
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D) all of the above.
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Urban and/or suburban gated-communities A) reduce crime. B) increase property values. C) create a space of safety. D) all of the above. E) A and B only.
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C) Intersections of major roads far from the Central Business District (CBD) can dramatically increase land values.
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According to the bid-rent curve, land decreases in value as one gets farther from the CBD. What accounts for major spikes in land values along the bid-rent curve? A) Areas with less crime are more valuable. B) Industry relocating to suburbia has altered land values. C) Intersections of major roads far from the Central Business District (CBD) can dramatically increase land values. D) Green space in the suburbs increases land values. E) Brown fields in the inner city depress land value.
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B) environmental.
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The strongest pull factor for the creative class is A) economic. B) environmental. C) cultural. D) political. E) social.
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C) census tract or block level.
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Social Area Analysis analyzes demographic characteristics at the A) metropolitan area scale. B) within a municipality. C) census tract or block level. D) zipcode scale. E) in different concentric zones.
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A) Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
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The three largest metropolitan areas in Canada in descending order are A) Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. B) Toronto, Montreal, and Calgary. C) Toronto, Vancouver, and Calgary. D) Toronto, Vancouver, and Edmonton. E) Toronto, Calgary, and Winnipeg
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D) Montreal.
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The largest French speaking metropolitan area in Canada is A) Ottawa. B) Quebec City. C) Halifax. D) Montreal. E) Vancouver.