AP Human Geography Unit 1 KBAT

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
cartography
the science of map making
contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. An example would be new music or an idea. New music or an idea goes viral because web surfers throughout the world have access to the same material simultaneously.
culture ecology
geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
culture
the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group’s distinct tradition.
density
the frequency with which something exists over a given unit of area.
diffusion
the process of spread of a feature of trend from one place to another over time.
distance-decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
distribution
the arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
environmental determinism
an approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences.
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. There are three types of expansion diffusion: contagious, stimulus, and hierarchical.
formal region
Also Called, Uniform region.
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. Montana is an example of a formal region, characterized with equal intensity throughout the state by a government that passes laws, collects taxes, and issues license plates.
friction of distance
based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort (energy) and/or money to overcome.
functional region
Can also be called a nodal region.An area organized around a node or focal point.
An example of a functional region is the reception area of a TV station. A TV station’s signal is strongest at the center of its service area.
GIS
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
GPS
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers.
Gravity Model
a model in urban geography derived from Newton’s law of gravity, and used to predict the degree of interaction between two places
population1+population2 divided by distance squared.
hierarchal diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places. An example would be Honda’s worldwide operations. Honda’s worldwide operations are controlled from headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. Officials in regional headquarters oversee operations in several regions and report to corporate headquarters.
hearth
A place from which an innovation originates. For example, ideas form in big cities like Chicago or New York and spread all around the world.
International Date Line
an arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the IDL heading east, the clock moves back one day. When you go west, the calendar moves ahead one day.
lattitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0 degrees).
longitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west from the equator (0 degrees).
mercator projection
• Shape is distorted very little
• Direction is consistent
• The map is rectangular
• Relative size is grossly distorted toward the poles, making high-latitude places look much larger than they actually are.
model
a three-dimensional representation of a person or thing or of a proposed structure, typically on a smaller scale than the original.
possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human action, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Prime Meridian
designated as 0 degrees longitude. passes through Greenwich, England.
projection
the system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map.
relocation diffussion
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one area to another. The most commonly spoken languages in North and South America are Spanish, English, French, and Portuguese, because several hundred years ago, Europeans who spoke those languages comprised the largest number of migrants. So, these languages spread through relocation diffusion.
remote sensing
the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods.
Robinson Projection
• Useful for displaying information across the oceans
• By allocating space to the oceans, the land areas are much smaller than on interrupted maps of the same size.
scale
generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically, the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface.
site
the physical character of a place
situation
the location of a place relative to another place
space-time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communication and transportation systems.
spatial analysis
the technique applied to structures at the human scale, most notably in the analysis of geographic data.
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle even through a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. For example, innovative features of Apple’s iPhone and iPad have been adopted by competitors.
time zones
There are 24 different time zones in the world set at 15-degree longitude intervals in between. The Earth completes one full rotation in 24 hours at a speed of 15 degrees per hour. On November 2, 1868, the then-British colony of New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, and was perhaps the first country to do so. It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, that is 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT.
Tobler’s First Law
everything is connected to everything else, but near things tend to be more connected than distant ones
toponym
the name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
uneven development
There is uneven development in the world because the peripheral regions, who once toiled in isolated farm fields to produce food for their families, now produce crops for sale in core regions or have given up farm life altogether and migrated to cities in search of jobs in factories and offices. As a result, the global economy has produced greater differences than in the past between the levels of wealth and well-being enjoyed by people in the core and in the periphery.
vernacular region
Also called, Perceptual region.
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. As an example of a vernacular region, Americans frequently refer to the South as a place with environmental and cultural features perceived to be quite distinct from those of the rest of the United States.
Define geography and human geography and explain the meaning of spatial perspectives.
geography-the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries.
human geography-The study of how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our localtiy, region, and world.
spatial perspectives: Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
Explain how geography classify each of the following and provide examples of each:
-distributions
-locations
-regions
distributions- the arrangement of something across Earth’s surface. ex: neighborhood
locations: exact place, address ex: Esperanza High School
Region: an area of the Earth with distinctive physical and cultural features: ex: Southern California
Identify how each of the following plays a role in mapmaking :
-simplification
-symbolization
-categorization
-induction
simplification-
Distinguish between different types of mapped information (dot distribution, choropleth, etc) and provide explanations of strengths and weaknesses of each.
Dot distribution map: a map type that uses a dot symbol to show the prescense of a feature or phenomenon.
Choropleth: a map that uses differences in shading, coloring, or the placing of symbols within predefined areas to indicate the average values of a property or quantity in those areas.
Explain the difference between three uses of scale: cartographic, analytic, and geographic.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member