AP Human Geography Chapter 2 & 3 Study Guide

Replacement level (p. 39)
The total fertility rate-average number of children born per woman- at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next without migration. If the replacement level is zero means that the same amount of people that are dying are being born. If the replacement level is high means that there are more births than deaths. If the level is negative means that there are more deaths than births.

Total Fertility Rates
The total number of children born per woman. More
specifically; it tells you the average number of children that would be born to a woman (who would live until the end of childbearing years) if she were to experience the exact current age- specific fertility rates through her lifetime.

Arithmetic density (p. 31)
The total number of people divided by the total land area. (general land)

Physiologic density
The number of people per square unit of area of (arable land), which is land suitable for agriculture.

Population density
A measurement of population per unit area or unit
volume; it is a quantity of type number density. (Bangladesh)

Terrain + Environment (p. 35)

Geographic Barriers
Take two groups of 10 cats and separate them by a mountain. Cats in one group won’t mate with cats in the other because they don’t have access to them. Wait a few million years or so, and most likely these groups will look extremely different from each other.

Population clusters

U.S. Census
The United States Bureau of Commerce that is responsible for conducting the national census at least once every 10 years, in which the population of the United States is counted

Thomas Malthus (p. 36-38)
Lived from the mid 1800s to the late 1800s. Thought that food growth won’t keep up with population, therefore the world would end. The Industrial Revolution changed that.

India’s population reduction policies
male sterilization, female sterilization

Crude death (or mortality) rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

Stages of demographic transition (model)

Population pyramids

Infant mortality rates
A figure that describes the number of babies that
die within the first year of their lives in a given population.

Eugenics
A set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. (Nazi, Germany)

Vectored vs non-vectored diseases
Mosquitoes are vectors for many important diseases. Being a vector means that it carries a disease from one
host to another. Many of these diseases have a wide
distribution, high mortality rate, and a high number of cases but some do not. Here you can learn some facts about a few of the mosquito vectored diseases.

“Lost Boys of Sudan”
A group of African American that ran away from Sudan because of the war that was going on so they were forced to leave to Ethiopia and Kenya. They were “lost” for a very long time.

Remittances
A sum of money sent, especially by mail, in payment for goods or services or as a gift. (John sent money to Africa to his family)

Activity spaces
The space within which daily activity occurs.

Internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.

Ernst Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration

Gravity model
The gravity model of trade in international economics,
similar to other gravity models in social science, predicts bilateral trade flows based on the economic sizes (often using GDP measurements) and distance between two units. The model was first used by Jan Tinbergen in 1962.

Chain migration
Refers to the endless chains of foreign nationals who are allowed to immigrate because citizens and lawful
permanent residents are allowed to bring in their non-
nuclear family members.

Internally displaced persons
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country’s borders. They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the current legal definition of a refugee.

3 Types of Movement
MIgration, Immigration and Emigration

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