AP Gov Chapter 9 vocab Test Questions

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lobby
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An interest group organized to influence government decisions, especially legislation. To lobby is to attempt to influence such decisions.
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lobbyist
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A person attempting to influence government decisions on behalf of the group.
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interest group
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An organization of people sharing a common interest or gaol that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
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incentive
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A valued benefit obtained by joining a political organization.
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solidary incentives
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The social rewards that lead people to join local or state political organizations. People who find politics fun and want to met others who share their interests are said to respond to solidary incentives.
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material incentives
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Benefits that have monetary value, including money, gifts, services, or discounts received as a result of one’s membership in an organization.
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purposive incentive
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The benefit that comes form serving a cause or principal form which one does not personally benefit.
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ideological interest groups
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Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions with coherent sets of (usually) controversial principles.
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public-interest lobby
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A political organization the stated goals of which will principally benefit nonmembers.
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social movement
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A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order. The civic rights movement of the 1960’s was such an event, as broadly based religious revivals. A social movement may have liberal or conservative goals.
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political cue
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A signal telling a congressional representative what values (e.g., liberal or conservative) are at stake in a vote–who is for, who is against a proposal–and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs or party agenda.
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ratings
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An assessment of a representative’s voting record on issues important to an interest group. Such ratings are designed to generate public support for or opposition to a legislator.
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Three reasons why interest groups are so common in this country
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-more cleavages in society -american constitutional system contributes to the number of interest groups by multiplying the points at which such groups can gain access to the government (the more chances there are to influence policy, the more organization there will be that seek to exercise that influence. -the weakness of political parties
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Four factors that explain the rise of interest groups
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-broad economic developments that create new interests and redefine old ones -government policy -social circumstances (social movement) -the more activities government undertakes, the more organized groups there will be that are interested in those activities.
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two kinds of interest groups
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-institutional interests: individuals or organizations representing other organizations. -membership interests: the activities/contributions of individuals citizens.
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three kinds of incentives
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-solidary incentives: sense of pleasure/companionship that arises out of meeting together in small groups. -material incentives: money or things and services readily valued in monetary terms. -purposive incentives: rely on the the appeal of their stated goals to recruit members. the most difficult incentive to have.
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three sources that have become important in raising money in recent years
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-foundation grants: donation from foundation. make up the most of the funds. -government/federal grants: federal government gives money to support a project. -direct mail: using a computer to send out letters that appeal to a specific grouping of people.
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four techniques to appeal to people by using direct mail
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-put a “teaser” on the outside so it won’t be thrown out as junk mail. -arouse emotions, preferably by portraying the threat posed by some “devil.” -have the endorsement of a famous name -personalize the letter
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reasons for upperclass bias
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-well-off people are more likely than poor people to join and be active in interest groups -interest groups representing business and the professions are much more numerous and better financed than organizations representing minorities, consumers, or the disadvantaged.
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upperclass bias isn’t true because of two reasons
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-they describe only certain inputs into the political system they say nothing about the outputs, that is, who wins and who loses on particular issues. -business-oriented interest groups are often divided among themselves.
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insider strategy
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in the past, lobbyists worked closely with a few key members of Congress, meeting them privately to exchange information and favors.
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outsider strategy
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the use of technology -radio/fax/internet: news out immediately -TV: link interested citizens in various locations across the country -toll-free phone numbers: allowing voters to call the offices of their members of Congress without charge -public opinion polls: measure/generate support for or opposition to proposed legislation.
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grassroots lobbying
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a form of lobbying that focuses on raising awareness of a particular cause at the local level, with the intention of reaching the legislature and making a difference in the decision-making process.
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the revolving door
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when people leave their federal jobs to take more lucrative positions in private industry. they may do favors for an industry in order to have a cushy job lined up after they leave.

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