Ap European History Study Guide – Fall Final Exam

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Chiaroscuro
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A technique in painting that uses shading to enhance naturalness
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Ferdinand and Isabella
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The rulers of Castile and Aragon, respectively. When they married, they combined their separate realms into a unified Spain. Their achievements were many; they managed to subdue their realms, secure their borders, venture abroad militarily, and Christianized the whole of Spain. They were also the ones who funded Christoper Columbus.
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Giotto
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The father of Renaissance painting. He loved nature, and often painted it, although it was still filled with religious seriousness
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Humanism
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The study of Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, Humanists advocated the studia humanitatis, a liberal arts program study embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy.
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Italian City-States
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The City-States were just that, City-states. There were 6 of them: The Duchy of Milan, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Florence, Republic of Venice, The Kingdom of Naples and The Papal States. All of their governments were despotism except for Florence, which was ruled by a successful merchant oligarchy
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Linear Perspecitve
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A painting technique in which the artist adjusted the size of figures to give the viewer a feeling of continuity with the painting
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Niccolo Machiavelli
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One who believed that Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means, he was a humanist and an admirer of ancient Rome. He was also very cynical, and was the author of the prince, in which he stated that it is much better to be feared than loved.
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Thomas More
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The best known English humanist, he wrote Utopia, and was a close friend of Erasmus. More became one of Henry VIII’s most trusted diplomat, and his repudiation of the Act of Supremacy made the king the leader of the English Church instead of the pope. He was later executed for not recognizing the King’s marriage to Anne Boleyn and refusing to swear an oath recognizing the Act of Supremacy. He paved the way for the English Reformation, although he was Catholic.
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Ludovico Il Moro
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Ruler of Milan, he made the mistake of inviting the French over the Alps and into Italy, where they proceeded to conquer.
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Notrthern Renaissance
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A renaissance much like the Italian one, although it happened after the Italian renaissance and was more focused on religion. Like the Italian renaissance, it can be attributed to the spread of humanism, the rise of the use of the vernacular in literary and political communications and the invention of movable type, and the recovery of classical knowledge and languages.
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Francesco Petrarch
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The \”father of humanism\”, He left his legal profession to pursue letters and poetry. He wrote many letters: Letters to the ancient Dead, which were fancified personal letters to long dead people, Africa, a Latin epic poem, Decameron, 100 often bawdy tales told by 3 men and 7 women who survived the plague, and his more famous contemporary work, a collection of highly introspective love sonnets to a certain Laura. Strongly supported the studying of Classical poetry and rhetoric.
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Utopia
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A book written by Thomas More, it depicted an imaginary society based on reason and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to earn their bread by their own work
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Vernacular
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The local language
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Leonardo Da Vinci
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Was the Renaissance’s ideal person, he was a master of many skills, he was a painter, engineer, scientist and botanist. He advocated scientific experimentation, and dissected corpses to learn anatomy. He also had great skill in conveying inner moods through complex facial expressions, as seen in his most famous painting, the Mona Lisa.
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Anabaptists
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Not much different than other religions except for the their belief in adult baptism as being essential to the acceptance of one’s faith.
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Anne Boleyn
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Charles VIII’s 2nd Wife, she is the main cause of the Church of England. She is later executed for alleged treason and adultery.
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The Book of Common Prayer
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Written by Thomas Cranmer, it was imposed on all English churches after the Act of Uniformity
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John Calvin
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The leader of Genevan Reformation, he believed in predestination, and God’s power over everything
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Catherine of Aragon
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The daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, she married Henry VIII, although he later divorces her in favor of Anne Bolyen
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Counter-Reformation
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A Catholic reaction to the Protestant Reformation’s success, a lot of is hinged on the Jesuit order and the Council of Trent. The Council was largely useless, and the Jesuits had to scramble to catch up
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Thomas Cranmer
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The author of the Book of Common Prayer, He also wrote a 42 article confession of faith, which set forth a moderate Protestant doctrine
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Edward VI
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The successor of Henry VIII, he is known for bringing the Protestant Reformation into England, for passing the two Acts of Uniformity and directly corresponding with John Calvin. However, this new Protestantism would remain short-lived due to his successor, Mary I
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Ignatius of Loyola
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Always associated with the Counter-Reformation, He published the book Spiritual Exercises. However, he is most well known as the founder of the Jesuits, in which he is regarded as a hero.
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Martin Luther
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Leader of the German Reformation, he is most well known for his 95 theses, which attacked the failings of the church. He believed in \”justification by faith alone\” sola fide, and that good works were expected, not because they are your salvation, but because a believer who is bound to Christ by faith already possesses God’s perfect righteousness.
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Elector Frederick
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An elector, which elects the pope, he was also a supporter of Luther, and provided a home for him to work in when he was excommunicated by the church.
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Henry VIII
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A King of England, most well known for establishing the Church of England with himself at the head, and for having a total of six wives.
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Marburg colloquy
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A meeting held by Landgrave Philip of Hesse. The goal of the meeting was to bring Luther and Zwingli, and by proxy, the Swiss and German protestants into a mutual defense pact. However, the meeting failed and the protestants were splintered, dooming the idea of a fully protestant Europe.
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Ulrich Zwingli
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Leader of the Swiss Reformation, he had a humanist education, and opposed the sale of indulgences, religious superstition and clerical celibacy. He was very literal in terms of belief and believed that what was not literally supported in the scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced.
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Cardinal Granvelle
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A capable man, Philip II of Spain assigned him the task of Christianizing the Netherlands. He planned to do this slowly but surely; however, he was forced from office by the efforts of William of Orange and the Count of Egmont. This led Philip II to instead settle things with force.
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Duke of Alba
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The most hated man in the Netherlands in the 15th century, he led his army of 10,000 to the Netherlands to subdue them through military occupation. During his occupation, a Council of troubles, known as the Council of Blood to the Netherlanders, sentenced several thousand suspected heretics to death. The Spanish also levied new taxes, forcing the Netherlands to pay for their own occupation. The combined persecution and taxation sent tens of thousands fleeing the Netherlands.
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Edict of Nantes
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Henry IV’s famous decree, it permitted Huguenots the ability to worship publicly, the right of public assembly, admission to public offices and universities and the permission to maintain fortified towns.
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Henry IV of France
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A politique, he assumed the throne from king Henry III when he was killed by a friar. Originally Protestant, he converted to Christianity when uttering his most famous quote \”Paris is worth a mass.\”
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Peace of Augsburg
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Recognized in 1555, it established the principle that a region’s ruler determined its religion (cuis regio, eius religio)
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Philip II of Spain
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Heir of a vast empire, he was given control over the intensely Catholic and militarily supreme western Hapsburg kingdom. During the first half of his reign, he focused mostly on the Turkish threat in the Mediterranean. In the second, he tried to assert Spanish authority in Northern Europe, primarily the Netherlands.
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Politique
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A ruler who put the success and well-being of their state above all else. They were interested in political unity and were very likely to be moderate and tolerant in religious matters
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Cardinal Richelieu
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A Catholic chief minister for the French king Louis XIV, he supported the Protestants in the Thirty Years War because he wanted to keep the Hapsburg armies, which were Catholic, occupied in Germany, rather than France
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Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
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King Charles IX believed his former regent, Catherine de Medicis, when she said that a Huguenot coup was afoot. Three thousands Huguenots were killed on the streets of Paris. Both Pope Gregory XIII and Philip the II of Spain were delighted in this development.
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Thirty Years War
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Was a result of the growing power of the Hapsburg, the Counter Reformation, The expansion of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire, and the religious conflict in Bohemia. It involved almost every major European country and consisted of four specific periods: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish and Swedish-French. The phase name represents the new country that joined the war.
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Treaty of Westphalia
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(1648) ended the Thirty Years War and contained the following provisions: it reasserted the religious settlement of the Peace of Augsburg and gave the Calvinists their legal recognition as an actual religion. It rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution and it proclaimed the independence of the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of the Netherlands/Holland. Bavaria became an Elector State, and Brandenburg-Prussia became the most powerful northern German state.
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William of Orange
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A politique, he was the leader of the Dutch independence movement. Later, he and his wife, Anne of Saxony, would become king and queen of England
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Charles I of England
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Ruler of England after James I, his assumption of the throne was immediately met with the war with Spain. Looking for new methods of income because Parliament refused to raise taxes, he resorted to levying unfair and unapproved taxes. Parliament then forces him to sign the Petition of Right, which forbids him from taxing without consent, no freeman can be imprisoned without cause, and that troops cannot be stationed in private homes. Eventually, during a war with Scotland, he invaded Parliament, seeking to arrest him opponents. They escaped, and the English Civil War kicked off.
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Charles II of England
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He was elected kind of England after the Puritan Republic ended. He had Catholic sympathies, and to avoid calling Parliament into session, he instead received income form Louis XIV
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Jean-Baptiste Colbert
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Minister of Finance for Louis XIV, he was a brilliant man who introduced mercantilism into France. His actions gave France the resources to build massive armies.
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Oliver Cromwell
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Leader of Puritan army, or the Roundheads, he reorganized the parliamentary army to make it more efficient. After the war, he rules England as Lord Protector. His reign is harsh and hated. His Protestant army also conquered Scotland and Ireland, where they carried out numerous atrocities against the Irish Catholics, which some still hold a grudge for today.
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English Civil War
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A war between King Charles I and his supporters (Cavaliers) and the parliamentary army (Roundheads) It started when King Charles I attempted to arrest his opponents in Parliament and, after 4 years, ended with Parliamentary victory.
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James I of England
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Originally James IV of Scotland, he assumed the English throne after the childless Elizabeth I died. Hie reign would be filled with problems, a majority of them being the obvious corruption of his court, his use of impositions as a source of income, his seemingly Catholic sympathies and his refusal to change the hierarchical episcopal system of church governance.
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Louis XIV
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Known as the Sun King, He is the one who commissioned Versailles. Spent a massive amount of time on political matters, he was influenced as a child by the Fronde, and spent a lot of effort into controlling his subjects. A firm believer in the divine right of kings, he once uttered :\”Letat, cest moi\” (I am the state). He engaged in many wars and had repressive religious policies, which included him retracting the Edict of Nantes, leading to a quarter million people fleeing France.
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Louis XV
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Heir to the French Throne after Louis XIV, his uncle ruled as regent until he became old enough. His uncle was an inefficient ruler and he was no better, with moral scandals and during his reign, the monarchy encountered many problems from the French aristocracy. His best adviser was Cardinal Fleury, who worked to restore the monarchy’s power
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Cardinal Mazarin
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Louis XIV’s chief minister after Cardinal Richelieu, he attempted to impose direct royal administration on France. The centralizing policies of him and Richelieu however, provoked a series of rebellions among the nobles known as the Fronde.
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Peter the Great
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Tsar of Russia, he had 2 goals: protect the power of the tsar from the jealousy of the Boyars and the greed of the Streltsy and to increase Russia’s military might so that it could help achieve the other goal and vice versa. He highly admired Western technology. Under his rule, Russia’s military greatly increased and it’s territory expanded to the Baltic sea,
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Petition of Right
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Puritans
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Cardinal Richelieu
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Louis XIII’s chief minister, he attempted to impose direct royal administration on France. The centralizing policies of him and Richelieu however, provoked a series of rebellions among the nobles known as the Fronde. He also circumscribed many of the political privileges given to Protestants from the Edict of Nantes
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Roundheads
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The forces and allies of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War
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Solemn League and Covenant
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Francis Bacon
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An English lawyer, high royal official, and the author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses. He has been regarded as the father of Empiricism and for setting a scientifically conducive environment
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Nicolas Copernicus
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A polish priest and astronomer, he is most known for publishing the book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, and the first person to suggest a helio-centric model of the universe.
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Cunning Folk
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People that were believed to be having magical powers.
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Empiricism
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Galileo Galilei
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An Italian mathematician and natural philosopher, he is best known as the first person to turn the telescope, a newly invented military tool, to the sky. Using it, he discovered many things not known to ancient astronomers. They included stars were none could be seen with the naked eye, mountains on the moon and moons orbiting Jupiter. Using the telescope, he determined that the Copernican system is the correct one. He was tried and sentenced to house arrest by the Church.
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Thomas Hobbes
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Jansenists
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Johannes Kepler
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Tycho Brahe’s assistant, after Brahe died, he inherited his tables and calculations. He is famous for making the connection between elliptical orbits and Copernicus’s system.
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Leviathan
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A book written by Thomas Hobbes, it described man as solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.
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Isaac Newton
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An Englishman, he is most famous for discovering gravity, writing the Principia Mathematica, and writing the 3 laws of motion. He was also a big believer in empiricism.
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Novum Organum
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A book written by Francis Bacon, in it, Bacon attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation, as well as the scholastic reverence for authority in intellectual life.
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Blaise Pascal
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A French mathematician,
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Royal Society of London
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Regarded as one of the first
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Scientific Revolution
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