AP European History chapter 26 study guide Essay

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Which one of the following did NOT characterize the weakness of the League of Nations?
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U.S. determination to be more involved in European affairs
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Efforts to maintain European peace following WWI included:
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An inherently weak system of alliances between France and the Little Entente
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Following Germany’s failure to pay its war preparation, France occupied Germany’s Ruhr valley, resulting in:
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A policy of passive resistance by the German government and German resort to printing money to pay war debts.
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Which of the following helped usher in a new era of European prosperity between 1924-1929?
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American investments following the Dawes Plan
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The settlement in 1925 by which Germany agree to accept its border with France was known as the:
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Treaty of Locarno
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A major cause of the Great Depression in Europe was
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The recall of American loans from European markets
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One significant effect of the Great Depression in Europe was:
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The rise of many authoritarian movements in many areas of Europe
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The first Popular Font government in France did what?
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Give ordinary workers new rights benefits, including minimum wage
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FDR’s New Deal policy in the US did what?
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Brought about a partial economic recovery, but full employment did not return until WW2’s rearmament.
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All of the following are correct about the European nations and their colonial empires during the interwar years except:
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The political and social foundations and the self-confidence of European imperialism was strengthened during the 1920s and 1930s.
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The Middle Eastern Muslim nation that made a conscious effort to adopt a Westernized secular culture after WWI was:
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Turkey
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Which one of the following should NOT be associated with Gandhi?
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(No exact answer) but he was associated with civil disobedience, great soul of India, peaceful resistance, self-manuturactured clothing (dhoti), adopt spinning wheel as independence symbol.
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Which one of the following states first adopted fascism?
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Italy
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Which one of the following was NOT true of modern totalitarian states?
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Largely ignore cultural aspect of life
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The growth of Mussolini’s Fascist movement was aided by
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Popular, nationalistic resentment toward Italy’s treatment following World War I
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Squadristi were:
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Armed bands of fascists who use violence to intimidate their enemies
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The institutional framework of Mussolini’s Fascist dictatorship
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Never created the degree of totalitarian control found in Russia and Germany in the 1930s
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Women in Mussolini’s Fascist Italy were:
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Largely forced through government legislation to become homemakers
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The Lateran Accords of 1929. what are they all about?
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Recognize Catholicism the sole religion of Italy
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During the 1920’s, the Weimar Republic experienced all of the following EXCEPT:
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Never joined the League of Nations
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Mein Kampf
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was autobiographical, setting forth hitlers ideology of aryan supremacy and anti semitism
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The Nazis proved to be effective in the realm of politics by
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Making the Nazi program appeal to every segment of German society.
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The most famous and spectacular of the Nazi mass demonstrations were held where?
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Nuremberg
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Hitler brought Germany out of the Depression….
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through rearmament and public work
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Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies in the 1930’s. Explain…
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reached their most violent phase during Kristallnacht, with attacks on Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues
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The Nazi policies toward women were:
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Claimed that through childbearing and service in the home, women could bring about triumph of the Aryan race.
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The only eastern European nation to maintain political democracy throughout the 1930’s was:
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Czechoslovakia
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The dominant form of government in Eastern Europe in the 1920s and 1930s was
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Authoritarianism
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The Spanish Civil war ended with the victory of
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Francisco Franco, who established a conservative, authoritarian, and anti-democratic regime with the backing of the spanish Catholic Church
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Lenin’s NEP was designed to
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Emphasized the development of heavy industry and the production if modern weapons and space vehicles, modified version of capitalism
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Joseph Stalin’s emergence as leader of the communist party was aided by
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His position as general secretary of the Bolshevik party.
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The Stalinist era in the 1930s witnessed this:
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Millions of ordinary citizens arrested and sent into force labor camps
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The collectivization of agriculture under Stalin was characterized by:
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Widespread famine
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Among the positive achievements of the Stalinist era in the USSR was:
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More educational opportunity
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The new forms of mass communication and leisure created between the wars included all of the following EXCEPT
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The widespread use of television in most middle class homes
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“Strength through Joy”
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An attempt to monitor and homogenize the leisure activities of German workers
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Artistic and intellectual trends in the interwar years reflected this:
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A disillusionment with western civilization provoked by the horrors of the World War One
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The Dada movement in art was known for all of the following EXCEPT:
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An effort to put a clear sense of purpose and ambition back into art and life
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Walter Gropius was best known for his:
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Ideas of functionalism in architecture
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Culture in Nazi Germany centered around:
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Petty-bourgeois art, with sentimental and realistic scenes glorifying strong, heroic Aryans
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NOT associated with the new literary techniques of the 1920s was:
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Ernest Rutherford
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Walter Heisenberg was most noted for:
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Proposing that uncertainty was at the bottom of all physical laws
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All of the following concepts were central to the psychological theories of Carl Jung EXCEPT:
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The uncertainty principle.
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The Locarno treaty. What is that all about?
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Guaranteed Germany’s new borders with France and Belgium.
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The Kellogg-Briand Pact. Was it related to a high fiber diet? No, but it was something else:
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63 nations agreed to “renounce war as an instrument of national policy”; it however did not mention what would happen if a nation violates this
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The first of Stalin’s 5 year plan was successful in that:
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According to the book, quadrupling production of heavy machinery, doubling oil production, steel, coal production increased.
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Which of the following BEST describes Europe in the 1920s?
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Age of anxiety, due to the fear invasions and wars. There were still hopes in progress.
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Which of the following best describes the economic policies of Great Britain and France in the 1920-1930 period?
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Great Britain Failure with Liberal Lloyd George 1923, Ramsay MacDonald, first Labour prime minister, but rejected any extreme social or econ experimentation Under Stanley Baldwin, 1925-1929, period of recovery superficial brit exports never compensated for the overseas investments lost during the war unemployment 10% coal miners suffered 1929 second Labour gov, but failed to solve problems and failed by 1931 A National Government (Liberals and Conservatives) brought Brits out of worst stages of depression trade policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs unemployment dropped John Maynard Keynes largely ignored need to get money circulating in a stagnant econ France needed to rebuild devastated areas of N and E France conservative National Bloc gov, led by Raymond Poincare wanted to use German reparations for above issue so a hard-line policy toward Ger and Ruhr invasion forced to raise taxes in 1924 to pay for Ruhr fiasco→party voted out Cartel of the Left 2 leftist French parties: Radicals and Socialists Radicals still a dem party Socialists still committed to Marxist soc failure to agree on soc and econ policies → efforts b/w 1924-1929 in vain Return of Raymond Poincare 1926-1929 stabilized French econ pd of relative prosperity 1932-1933: Political Chaos radical rightist parties demonstrated against leftist → drove the leftist parties together 1936, June: Popular Front gov formed socialists and radicals Leon Blume as prime minister French New Deal successful program for workers right of collective bargaining, 40 hr work wk, 2 wk paid vaca, minimum wages failed to solve problems of the depression 1938, decline in political system
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The Popular Front in Spain was more radical than the popular front in France for all of the following reasons, except:
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Passive leader? Seized aristocratic property and land, workers went on strike, church and clergy attacked.
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Which of the following best describes the experience of colonized countries after WWI?
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struggle for independence
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The Dawes Plan of 1924
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a.called for the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments. b. was designed to help England and France make their debt payments to the United States. C. called for Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments. D. called for both the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments, and Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments. CORRECT: E. All these answers are correct.
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John Maynard Keynes. What did he believe?
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Wrote General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Believed unemployment stemmed not from overproduction but from a decline in demand and that demand could be increased by public works financed, if needed through deficit spending to stimulate production.
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1926, coal mine strike, Great Britain. What happened?
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Attempts by mine owners to lower coal miner’s wages led to this national strike by miners and sympathetic trade unions. A compromise settled the strike, but many miners refused to accept the settlement and were eventually forces back to work at lower wages for longer hours.
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Leon Blúm. “Who dat?”
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French politician. Led the French Socialists and the popular front. Raised the salaries for civil servants. Instituted a public work program.
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Gustave Stresemann was
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German foreign minister
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Which of the following countries sent aid to the democratic defenders of the republic during the Spanish civil war?
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Soviet Union
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Kristallnacht. What’s that?
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“Night of broken glass.” Wave of violent, anti-Jewish pogroms. Young Jew killed French third secretary, excuse for killing Jews
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Prime factor in Great Depression regarding stock purchases:
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American stock market collapsed
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Nuremburg Laws.
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Separate Jews from Aryan race, outlaw their basic rights.
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Schutzstaffel — who are they?
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At first, Hitler’s bodyguards. Later became the most feared organizations in all of Nazi Germany. Special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925.

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