A&P Chapter 17

Flashcard maker : Alice Rees
The first step in the process of olfaction is __________.
an odorant molecule binding to a specific protein
Which of the flowing explanations best describes why olfaction can elicit powerful emotional responses?
Olfactory information is relayed directly to the hypothalamus and limbic system
Which of the following is true of olfactory discrimination?
The number of olfactory receptors decline as we age
All of the following are true of olfactory pathways except which one?
They project first to the occipital lobes and then to the thalamus
Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?
How would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor?
It would open chemically-gated sodium channels.
It could trigger an afferent action potential.
It would depolarize the olfactory receptor.
It would increase sodium permeability.


Which of the following statements about smell is true?
Basal cells are the supporting cells for the receptors cells of the olfactory receptor
The olfactory receptors are highly modified
sensory neurons
Which of the following is involved in the gustatory perception of an amino acid?
umami receptors
Gustatory receptors are found in __________.
some lingual papillae
Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
Identify the fluid filled space between the cornea and iris.
anterior chamber
Identify the structure that regulates the amount of light entering the posterior segment of the eye.
Identify the areas that are filled with aqueous humor.
The anterior and posterior chambers
The iris divides the eye into the anterior and posterior segments.
The pupil can adjust its size independent of the iris.
Identify the parts of the fibrous layer.
Sclera and cornea
Identify the structure that allows light to first enter the eye.
Name the largest portion of the fibrous layer.
Which cranial nerve carries visual information from the eyeball to the brain?
optic nerve
Only the fibrous layer can be observed in its entirety from the superficial surface of the cow eye.
Identify the muscular structure that anchors the lens in place.
ciliary body
Where is the vitreous body located?
posterior segment
Identify the neural layer.
Which of the following structures is highly vascular?
Which of the following regions is known as the blind spot?
optic disc
Identify the incorrect statement regarding the vitreous body.
consists of thin, watery fluid
Which of the following cells form the deepest layer of the neural part of the retina?
ganglionic cells
In a condition called detached retina, the neural part of the retina separates from the pigmented part. Blindness may result if blood supply to the photoreceptors cannot be restored. These photoreceptors are called?
rods & cones
In glaucoma, increasing pressure due to fluid build-up in the chambers of the eye can lead to nerve damage and ultimately lead to blindness. What is the name of the fluid in the anterior chamber?
aqueous humor
Which of these is the correct pathway for transmission of visual information?
photoreceptor ( bipolar cell ( ganglion cell
The “white” of the eye is part of the __________ layer.
Which of these functions does the vascular layer serve?
It regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.
It controls the shape of the lens.
It supports blood vessels and lymphatics.


Which of the following is false concerning lacrimal glands?
They produce a strongly hypertonic fluid
What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
ciliary body
The neural tunic of the eye
contains the photoreceptor cells.
contains bipolar cells.
contains ganglion cells.
is the deepest layer of the eyeball.


The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
changing shape
The space between the cornea and the iris is the
anterior chamber
The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
The cornea is part of the
fibrous tunic
Trace the circulation of aqueous humor from the site of production to the site of where it is reabsorbed.
1. posterior chamber
2. anterior chamber
3. ciliary body
4. canal of Schlemm
5. pupil
Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________, and sympathetic activation causes ________.
During accommodation, the ciliary muscle ________ and the suspensory ligaments become ________ which, in turn, cause the lens to become ________.
During accommodation, the ciliary muscle ________ causing the ciliary body to move ________ and apply ________ tension on the lens.
A(n) ________ is an infection in one of the glands on the eyelids.
The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as
a cataract
An irregularity in curvature in the cornea or lens, called ________, causes a reduction in visual acuity.
All visual pigments contain __________ derived from __________.
retinal;Vitamin A
When a rod is stimulated by light,
less neurotransmitter is released.
the retinal changes from the 11-cis to the 11-trans form.
cGMP decreases and sodium channels close.
the plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized.
When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound
Where are the visual pigments located in the rods and cones?
inside membrane discs stacked in the outer segment
A young child has been diagnosed with a recessive hereditary disease that results in destruction of the geniculate nucleus. The result of this would be
partial loss of vision
Which of the following structures is least likely to be involved in motion sickness?
cochlear duct
Which of the following conditions bests describes the effects of damage to the cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII?
The person would have a problem perceiving the range of sound intensities.
The person would have problems detecting the pitch of a sound.
The person would have a limited range of detecting the frequency of sound.


Relative movement of the __________ in the semicircular ducts signals rotation of the head.
The receptors responsible for auditory sensations are located in a structure called the __________.
spiral organ
The axons that carry the sense of balance synapse first in the __________.
vestibular nucleus
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term basilar membrane?
moves up and down due to currents in the perilymph
The auditory ossicles connect the
tympanic membrane to the oval window
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
auditory tube or Eustachian tube
The structure that forms the “roof” of the organ of Corti is the
tectorial membrane
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
saccule and utricle
The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the
Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
signals and rational movements
Low frequency sounds stimulate hair cells on which part of the basilar membrane?
the distal end
Standing still in an elevator that suddenly lowers will stimulate receptors in the
utricle and saccule
The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
tympanic membrane
The secretion commonly called earwax is produced by ________ glands.
The hair cells of the cochlear duct are located in the
organ of corti
________ deafness occurs because of a problem in the cochlea or somewhere along the auditory pathway.
The cochlear receptors that provide our sense of hearing are
hair cells

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