A&P Ch. 1 – Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy
The study of structure

Physiology
The study of function

Inspection
Simply looking at the body’s appearance. (Performing physical examination, making clinical diagnosis)

Palpation
Feeling a structure with the hands

Auscultation
Listening to the natural sounds made by the body.

Percussion
Examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to emitted sound for signs of abnormal resistance.

Dissection
Carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships.

Cadaver
A dead human body.

Comparative Anatomy
The study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analyze the evolutionary trends.

Exploratory Surgery
Opening the body and

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taking a look inside to see what’s wrong and what could be done about it.

Medical Imaging Techniques
Methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery.

Radiology
Branch of medicine concerned with imaging.

Gross Anatomy
Structure that can be seen with the naked eye.

Histology (Microscopic Anatomy)
Method used to view individual cells through taking tissue specimens, thinly slicing and staining them, and observing them under the microscope.

Histopathology
The microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease.

Cytology
The study of the structure and function of individual cells.

Ultrastructure
Fine detail, down to the molecular level, revealed by the electron microscope.

Neurophysiology, Endocrinology, Pathophysiology
Three subdiciplines of physiology.

Comparative Physiology
Study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance, respiration, and reproduction.

Hippocrates
The “father of medicine,” established a code of ethics for physicians, believed in natural causes for diseases and sickness.

Aristotle
One of the first to write about A&P, believed natural events could have supernatural causes (theologi) or natural causes (physiologi), believed that complex structures are built from a smaller variety of simple components.

Aristotle
Who wrote “On the Parts of Animals”?

Claudius Galen
Physicians to the Roman Gladiators, wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era, unable to use cadavers for studies, which led to a lack of understanding human anatomy.

Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon)
Jewish physician who worked unnder the court of the sultan, Saladin in Egypt. Wrote on Jewish law/theology, but wrote 10 medical books and numerous treatises on specific diseases.

Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
Muslim medical scholar, known as “The Galen of Islam.” Wrote “The Canon of Medicine.” Was the leading authority in European medical schools for over 500 years.

Andreas Vesalius
Completed dissections himself at a time in which it broke tradition, first to publish accurate illustrations for teaching anatomy, wrote “On the Structure of the Human Body,” in 1543.

William Harvey
Studied blood circulation, wrote “On the Motiion of the Heart,” discovered with Micheal Servetus that blood must circulate continuously around the body from the heart and back.

Robert Hooke
Designed the compound microscope, which magnified about 30 times. Was the first to see and name cells. Wrote Micrographia in 1665.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Invented a simple microscope, originally for the purpose of examining the weave of fabrics. Magnified 200 times. Was initially praised, but later became satirical.

The Cell Theory
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann concluded that all organisms were composed of all cells.

Scientific Method
Certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one’s observations and conclusions.

Inductive Method
First prescribed by Bacon. A process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.

Psychomatic Effects
Effects of the subject’s state of mind on his/her physiology.

Fact
Information that can be independently verified by any trained person.

Law of Nature
A generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave.

Theory
An explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses.

Charles Darwin (1809-82)
Wrote the book that “shook the world:” “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,” (1859), and “The Descent of Man,” (1871). He wrote about how evolution worked and how mankind is related to other animals.

Evolution
Change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms.

Natural Selection
The principal theory of how evolution works: some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors that enable them to produce more offspring, and such characteristics therefore become more and more common in successive generations.

Selection Pressures
Natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others. (Ex: Climate, predators, disease, competition, and the availability of food.)

Adaptations
Features of anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.

Model
An animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem.

Organism
A single, complete individual.

Organ System
A group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion.

Organ
A structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function.

Tissue
Mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function.

Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscular
Four Primary Classes of Tissue

Cells
Smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life.

Organelles
Microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions.

Molecules
A particle composed of at least two atoms.

Atoms
The smallest particles with unique chemical identities.

Reductionism
The theory that a large, complex system can be understood by studying its simpler components (such as the human body). Created by Aristotle.

Holism
The theory that there are “emergent properties” of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of its separate parts.

Anabolism
Relatively complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones.

Catabolism
Relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones.

Metabolism
The sum of all internal chemical change (consists of anabolism and catabolism).

Excretion
The separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body.

Homeostasis
The ability to maintain internal stability.

Stimuli
Changes in one’s environment.

Responsiveness (or Irritability or Excitability)
The ability of an organism to sense and react to stimuli.

Differentiation
The transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task.

Development
Any change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism. (Includes Differentiation and Growth).

Growth
An increase in size.

Claude Bernard (1813-78)
Observed that the internal condition of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly.

Walter Cannon (1871-1945)
Coined the term homeostasis for the tendency to maintain internal stability.

Dynamic Equilibrium
A “balanced change.” Best description for the internal state of the body.

Negative Feedback
A process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it. The key mechanism for maintaining health.

Vasodilation
The widening of blood vessels. Used when blood and body becomes to warm/hot.

Vasoconstriction
A narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin. Serves to retain warm blood deeper in the body and reduce heat loss. (If this is not enough, shivering occurs to generate heat).

Receptor
A structure that senses a change in the body, such as the stretch receptors that monitor blood pressure.

Integrating (control) center
A mechanism that processes information, relates it to other available information, and “makes a decision” about what the appropriate response should be.

Effector
The cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action.

Positive Feedback
A self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction.

Gradient
A difference in chemical concentration, electrical change, physical pressure, temperature, or other variable between one point and another.

Down the Gradient
If matter or energy moves from the point where this variable has a higher value to the point with a lower value, it is…

Eponyms
Terms coined from the names of people.

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