AP Biology Chapter 16 Study Guide

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DNA Replication
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Replication of DNA
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Transformation
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Change is genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
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Bacteriophages
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Genetic material that infect bacteria
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Phages
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Short for bacteriophages
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Virus
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DNA or sometimes RNA that is enclosed by a protective coat which for the most part a protein
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Double Helix
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Shape of DNA
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Antiparallel
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Parallel but go in opposite direction
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Semiconservative Model
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Model of how DNA replication works
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Origin of replication
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Replication of DNA starts at this particular site
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Replication Fork
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Each end of a replication bubble
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Helicases
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Enzymes that unwind the double helix at the replication fork
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Single Strand Binding Proteins
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Bind to the unpaired DNA strands keeping them from winding back up together
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Topoisomerase
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Help relieve tension by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands
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Primer
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RNA strand
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Primase
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Synthesizes primer onto DNA strand
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DNA polymerase 3
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Catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a preexisting chain
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Leading strand
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Goes in a 5′ to 3′ direction and continuesly adds on new nucleotides in the same direction
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Lagging strand
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DNA pol 3 must work away replication fork to continue in the 5′ to 3′ direction
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Okazaki Fragments
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Segments of DNA on lagging strands
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DNA Polymerase 1
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Replaces Primers with nucleotides
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Ligase
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Joins DNA strands of replaced primers and new DNA together
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Mismatch Repair
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Other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides with correct ones
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Nuclease
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DNA cutting enzyme for incorrectly paired Nucleotides
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Nucleotide exorcism repair
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DNA repair system
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Telomeres
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DNA molecules have a special nucleotide sequence at their ends
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Telomerase
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An enzyme catalyzes the lengthening of the telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells
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Nucleoid
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Dense region of DNA in bacterium
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Chromatin
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Complex of DNA and protein
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Heterochromatin
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Type of interphase chromatin, visible in irregular clumps under a light microscope
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Euchromatin
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More dispersed and less compacted then heterochromatin

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