AP Art History 250 Pieces

Flashcard maker : Ruth Jones
Apollo 11 Stones
-25,500-25300 BCE
-Found in Namibia
-Rock Painting
-Drawn in charcoal on quartzite
-Earliest known piece of art
-Unidentified animal, perhaps supernatural
-Has two horns relating to Oryx and sexual organ of bovid
-Shamanism (religion based on the idea that forces of nature can be contacted through intermediaries)
-Probably has ritual significance
Great Hall of Bulls
-15,000-13,000 B.C.E.
-Lascaux, France.
-Rock painting
-paint is made from charcoal, iron ire, other plants
-clear that the people used scaffolding to create
-people did not live in caves
-evidence of thought (sanded down the surface to flatten)
-possible meanings: to ensure a successful hunt, worship or ancestral animal worship, or shamanism
Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine
-Date is hard to know because surroundings of find were not able to be analyzed (likely between 14,000-7000 B.C.E.)
-Tequixquiac, Mexico
-Carving made from the sacrum bone (triangular bone at the base of the spine) of camelid (family of animals including llamas, alpacas, etc.)
-Humans carved nostril-like holes into front of bone
-Bone is also engraved though it is hard to see
-Possibly considered sacred
-It is thought that Mesoamericans considered the sacrum to be sacred
Running Horned Woman
– 6,000-4,000 B.C.E.
-canyons of the Tassel n’ajmer (plateau in Algerian section of Sahara Desert near borders of Libya and Niger)
-pigment on rock
-can be considered a goddess or real woman
-Most likely associated with a ritual or right
Beaker with ibex motifs
-4200-3500 BCE
-Susa, Iran
-Painted on terra cotta
-Contains many animal forms/symbols
-not naturalized, but stylized
-Center picture is clearly some form of ram
-feather-type art on top of beaker appear to represent birds
-Functional art (can be used for something)
Anthropomorphic stele
-4th millenium BCE
-Arabian Peninsula
-Upright stone slab
-sand stone
-about 3 ft high
-Anthropomorphic=resembling a human
-Minimalist, or not overly complex. Simple but gets point across
Jade Cong
-3300-2200 BCE
-Liangzhu, China
-Made of Jade
-carved into using sand because jade was too hard to be cut by real tools
-cong=square hollow tubes decorated with lines and sometimes circles that represent faces
-Found in graves
-2500-1600 B.C.E
-Wiltshire, UK.
-Sandstone: very durable to last this long
-might have take up to 1000 years to build. not all built by same people, people saw it and added to it
-could have astronomical or ritual association
– no roof so can see sky
-largest megaliths are over 20 ft tall
-the megaliths form a horseshoe surrounding a central flat stone
-stones are giant. up to several hundred tons and 13 ft high
-some stones from over 200 miles away
-seems to be oriented to sunrise at the summer solstice
-post and lentil
-menhir= megalith= uncut standing stone
-henge= circular ground plan
Ambum Stone
-c. 1500 BCE
-Ambum valley, Enga Province. New Guinea
-echidna in a fetal position
-nose of fruit bat
– the echidna was an animal thought to have been revered for its useful fat deposits prior to the introduction of pigs.
-most likely considered sacred and used in rituals
-not much is known of creators
Tlatilco female figurine
-c. 1200-900 BCE
-Central Mexico, site of Tlatilco
-looks almost like 2 bodies/faces fused together to create 1.5 bodies
-probably represents duality (life and death, spiritual and material, etc.)
-most likely had a burial purpose
-wide hips and pinched waist
Terra cotta fragment
-c. 1000 BCE
-Solomon Islands, Reef Islands
-Terra Cotta
-Lapita culture
-designs are created by incision, aka the material is cut into
-obviously not the whole work of art (fragment)
-beautiful, circular designs all over.
-Face on far right fragment
White Temple and its ziggurat
-Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq). Sumerian.
-c. 3500-3000 B.C.E
-large mud brick buildings
-whitewash was used to disguise the mud appearance
-has several methods of reducing rainwater
-the temple on top is small and on top and removed from the populus
-the entire form resembles a mountain
-3 large staircases that lead upwards to a guardhouse
-dedicated to the moon-god, Nanna
-the four corners are oriented to the compass
Palette of King Narmer
-Predynastic Egypt.
-c. 3000-2920 B.C.E.
-used more for ceremonial purposes, not for practical purposes
-shows unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
-mace pose for the Upper Crown guy
-has a sandal bearer
-composite view
-the falcon of Horus (a symbol of divinity)
-bulls, representative of regal authority
-has more enemies under foot
-Lower Side, enemies have been beheaded and castrated
-hierarchy of scale
-serpopards intwined necks symbolize the unification of Egypt
-at top of each side is the king’s name in hieroglyphics
-the bodies are meant to be read as laying on ground (many different perspectives are present)
Statues of votive figures
-c. 2700 B.C.E
-found in burial sites
-range of under a foot
-found in temple meant for Abu.
-wide eyes and hands crossed because it is praying to Abu
-carved into, meant to be seen from front by Abu
-votive=offering to gain favor or give thanks to a god
-different heights= hierarchy of scale
Seated Scribe
-Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty.
-c. 2620-2500 B.C.E.
-Painted limestone.
-old kingdom, old scribe
-cross-legged, seated on the ground, looks very formal
-eyes/iris’ are rock crystal
-created for the tomb of Saqqara.
-not a pharaoh. Quite realistic and shows flaws so most likely just a person of wealth
-Ka= soul/spiritual essence
Standard of Ur
-c. 2600-2400 B.C.E.
-Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone.
-purposely buried
-one side is peace and the other is war
-it’s a historical narrative
-lyre box on the back of the chariot
-hierarchy of scale (king is much larger than everyone else, he breaks the border, he is not confined)
-the prisoners of war are naked and debased
-there are 3 registers (divisions) per side
Great Pyramids of Giza
 a. Pyramid of Khufu
 b. Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx
 c. Pyramid of Menkaura
Great Pyramids of Giza
a. Pyramid of Khufu
b. Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx
c. Pyramid of Menkaura
-Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty.
-c. 2550-2490 B.C.E
-Cut limestone.
-from the same dynasty (Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure)
-Khufu has the largest one
-made out of limestone
-each corner of the pyramid is in line with the compass
-the upper levels of the pyramid are completely filled in
-the top would have been a golden capstone
-the pyramids include large boat-pits
King Menkaura and Queen
-Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty.
-c. 2490-2472 B.C.E.
-Menkaure is leader.
-Queen supports him (arm on his waist)
-King steps out further than queen
-made of slate (very long-lasting) (symbolizes the endurance of the pharaoh) (greywacke)
-attached to the block of stone
-wife has simple and affectionate gesture
-he has a powerful physique and stride
Code Stele of Hammurabi
-Babylon (modern Iran). Susan.
-c. 1792-1750 B.C.E.
-feet on mountains, rays of light coming from his shoulders
-person sitting is considered divine
-divine right to be king, he is glorious and wonderful
-300 laws written using cuneiform. 51 columns of words
-low relief
Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
-Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty.
-c. 1473-1458 B.C.E.
-Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite.
-Senenmut was the architect
-Hatshepsut is a woman who rules (but is depicted as a man)
-coordinates with the natural setting
-has long horizontal and vertical lines (both in the mountain and the temple)
-terrace would have been planted as a garden with exotic trees
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and three daughters
-New Kingdom (Amarna), 18th Dynasty.
-c. 1353-1335 B.C.E.
-idea on monotheism, only true god id the sun god Aten
-only person w access to sun God is two people in piece
-sunken relief
-would have been in an altar in domestic
– curved, softer, more fluid lines
-new style
-ankhs = Egyptian symbol of life
King Tutankhamen’s tomb
-New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty.
-c. 1323 B.C.E.
-Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones
-discovered in 1922
-3 layers of coffins
-holds crook and flail
-cobra and wings= divinity
-false beard also represents kingship
Judgement of Hu-Nefer
-New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty.
-c. 1275 B.C.E.
-Painted papyrus scroll.
-tells the story of Hunefer
-made on Papyrus
-Hunefer appears 3 times
-first, he talks to the gods about how he lived a good life
-second, he is being lead by Anubis to the scale
-third, he talks to Osiris himself
-combination of written language and imagery
Lamassau from the Citadel of Sargon II
-c. 720-705 B.C.E.
-lamassau= head of human, body of bull, wings of eagle
-symbolic as well as functional
-huge human headed animal guardian figures
-has 5 legs for different perspectives
-they ward off enemies of the state and king
-a feeling of harmony and stability
-made of limestone
Athenian Agora
-c. 600 B.C.E.-150 C.E.
– Archaic through Hellenistic Greek
-stoa= where political discussions take place
-plans for the Athenian Agora, blueprints, put on public display (see image)
-large open area with lots of space for recreation, marketplace, social location for people to gather and converse
-primarily religious and retail purpose
-the word Agora means gathering place, many people would gather and talk here about various issues
-said to be the birthplace of democracy
Anavysos Kouros
-c. 530 B.C.E
-Archaic Greek
-Marble with remnants of paint
-representation of a young soldier who died in battle
-grave marker
-upright stance and straight posture
-bilateral symmetry
-muscular man to represent ideal male soldier and figure
– grave markers were often symbols of the deceased themselves
-male dominated society
-shows off the male form and anatomy
Peplos Kore
-c. 530 B.C.E
-Archaic Greek
-marble with painted details
-clothed in counterpart to the male sculptures of the time
-significantly different than other female sculptures found
-peplos= Ancient Greek clothing for female
-many thoughts as to what figure she is. Some think she is a real woman, others think it could be one of the greek goddesses like Artemis or Athena
Sarcophagus of the Spouses
-c. 520 B.C.E.
-used as urn for the ashes of the couple it represented
-visual representation of the couple
-shows emotion
-naturalistic scene/pose
-stylized, thin legs and emphasis on the torso and upper body of both
-man is holding woman to show emotion and dominance
-patriarchal society
-not very common for a couple to be pictured together intimately
Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius and Xerxes
-c. 520-465
-Persepolis, Iran
-Etruscans were influenced by Greeks
-can fit 10,000 people
-griffins= eagle-headed lions
-72 columns and two giant stairways
-apadana=audience hall
-capitals are tops of columns, stone imported from local mountains
-columns and capitals were meant to impress
Temple of Minerva and Sculpture of Apollo
-c. 510-500 BCE
-served as a place of worship, similar to a church
-priesthood of Minerva would worship here
-Corinthian order
-various geometric shapes such as triangles and rectangles, various columns
-various statues located on the roof, tall columns, elevated
-Wood, mud brick, tufa
Tomb of the Triclinium
-480-470 BCE-Etruscan
-Tarquinia, Italy
-Tufa and Fresco
-chamber tombs are tombs in underground rock-cut chamber
-banquet, people enjoying dinner, dancing
-musical instruments depicted
-funerals were often accompanied by games and fun stuff (surprising!)
Niobedes Krater
-c. 460-450 B.C.E
-Niobid painter
-red figure technique
-krater= big vase used to mix water and wine
-Niobe boasted of her 14 kids, saying they were better than the goddess Leto’s. Leto’s kids were Artemis and Apollo, who proceeded to exact revenge on Niobe by killing her kids
-figures occupy different levels
-opposite images depicted on opposite sides (contrasts)
-Herakles (club, lion skin)
-inspired by Greek wall painting
Polykleitos’ Doryphorous (Spear Bearer)
-c. 450-440 B.C.E.
-Canon= something to be studied and copied
-decoration, propoganda for other men to achieve the ideal figure,
-highly defined muscles, idealized male figure, naturalistic pose
-the main reason behind creating the statue was to show what the ideal male figure should be, unclothed muscular man
-the statue would have had a spear in its hand, Olympic athletes were highly regarded
-ancient Greeks believed the male figure was a true representation of beauty and perfection
-448-442 BCE
-DORIC temple with 2 ionic elements (friezes and middle columns)
-Architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates
-patron was pericles
-high on a hill= acropolis
-once was home to a huge Athena state (Phidias), which was gold and ivory and 38ft tall
-Doric Columns on outside
-slight curve to middle columns
-Metopes and Triglyphs
-Metopes depict the Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs and three other battles where the Greeks were victorious
-propylaea: gateway (prepared the visitor for his/her entrance into the complex)
Grave Stele of the Hegeso
-c. 410 B.C.E
-Marble and paint
-attributed to Kallimachos
-grave marker
-Hegeso is the woman seated in the picture
-\”Hegeso, daughter of Proxenos\” is inscribed into the stele.
– life-sized
-carved in relief from the background
-stylized hair and clothes
-hierarchy of scale
-Hegeso is picking out jewelry, probably to symbolize his wealth
Winged Victory of Samothrace
-c. 190 B.C.E
-Hellenistic Greek
-wings go perpendicular to straight-up sculpture
-supposed to be on prow of ship (not a real ship, but sculptural ship)
– looks wind-blown
-dramatic twist and contrapusto of torso
-probably built to celebrate a naval victory
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
-c. 175 BCE
-Asia Minor
-Marble (architecture and sculpture)
-Hellenistic Greek
-Its main function was to worship of Zeus and Athena
-its general artistic form is a geometric, ionic structure
-altar for worship of Zeus and Athena
-shows the Greek victory at Pergamon for the kingdom
-realistic carvings in relief alongside the sides of the temple as well as on the stairs
-figures interact with their environment- crawling up stairs with you
-large and grand representing the Greek’s style
Boxer at Rest
-c. 100 B.C.E.
-Hellenistic (after Alexander the Great)
-lost wax casting.
-sculpture is hollow
-not ideal
-not beautiful, different from other Greek art
-muscular, powerful, but defeated
-extreme detail to face. has bruises, broken nose, \”cauliflower\” ear
-copper inlaid in brass shows bruises and uncommon deformity. Also shows straps on gloves
House of the Vetti
-c. 2nd Century BCE
-rebuilt c. 62-79
-Pompeii, Italy
-domestic townhouse
-aristocratic family’s home. It is a nice home, showing off the family’s wealth and status
-has an atrium, or open-roofed reception hall
-atrium is richly decorated. public place so best decorations used here.
-peristylium= garden
Alexander mosaic from the House of the Faun
-c 100 BCE.
Republican Roman
-battle of Isis
-turning point in Persian war
-Alexander the Great vs. Darius III
-tremendous sense of dynamism because of the way the chariot and soldiers look energetic
-specific facial gestures (i.e Darius looks to Alexander to plead)
-Greeks were very good wall painters but we don’t have any in the modern day
-Roman floor mosaic based on Greek painting
-original painter was the Greek Philoxenos
-1.5 million tiles in the mosaic
-lights and darks to create depth and 3D
Head of a Roman Patrician
-c 75-50 BCE.
-Republican Roman.
-Realism, conveying seriousness of mind and the virtue of a public career
-gravitas: seriousness of mind
-virtus: virtue
-Verism: hyperrealism in sculpture where the naturally occurring features of the subject are exaggerated, often to the point of absurdity.
-This stylistic tendency is influenced both by the tradition of ancestral imagines as well as a deep-seated respect for family, tradition, and ancestry.
-imagines: death mask of notable ancestors that were kept and displayed by the family.
-Busts help one seem wiser and tied to the old if not a long family history.
-Veristic portrait
Augustus of Prima Porta
-Early 1st century CE
-Imperial Roman
-distinct resemblance to Polykleitos’ Doryphoros
-depicting himself with the perfect body of a Greek athlete
-dolphin symbolizes naval victory at the Battle of Actium
-chestplate shows that Augustus has the gods on his side, he is an international military victor, and he is the bringer of the Pax Romana, a peace that encompasses all the lands of the Roman Empire.
-Flavian Amphitheater
-70-80 CE.
-stone and concrete.
-Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman.
-Functional architecture
-Flavian’s paid for building
-Hold between 50,000 and 80,000 people
-Tuscan to Doric to Ionic to Corithian
-Concrete allows to build higher and whiter
-76 entrances
-Engaged columns (in the wall)
-Retractable canvas roof
-Dome: made by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis.
-Barrel or tunnel vault: row of arches, looks like a tunnel
-Cornice: decorative crown on top of the colosseum
Forum/Column of Trajan
-106-12 CE; column completed in 113 CE
-Rome, Italy.
-administrative center, as well as commercial, political, and social center
-open civic space
-Apollodorus of Damascus is the architect
-had to destroy hill to create it
-Trajan on horseback, as well as Trajan’s column
-sculptures of the Dacians made to look good because it showed Roman strength by beating a worthy enemy
-150 shops
-spiral of battle scenes
-Column was showing off Trajan’s military victory
-pillar is 125 feet tall, as tall as the hill was they removed
-118-125 CE.
-Concrete with stone facing.
-Imperial Roman.
-During Hadrian’s reign
-Rectangular patio with granite corinthian columns
-Concrete rotunda
-open at top center (oculus: eye) rain comes in. (27′ diameter 7.5′ deep)
-dome has 5 coffered rings going toward the oculus (28 in each because it is a perfect number).
-originally colonnades on side, so it looked smaller before entering into a huge round room
-monolithic columns from Egypt
-Radial plan (circular) height=width the same (could hold a perfect sphere)
-frieze of false windows
-columns inside are decorative
-weight is really supported by the walls (20 ft thick at base)
-Earthly sphere meeting heavenly sphere. (makes visual the movement of light)
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
-C. 250 CE.
– Late Imperial Roman.
-perspective as though the observer is looking from above
-No space, piled on top of each other lack individuality
-deep relief, 2 registers, multiple depth layers
-different textures show different roughness of characters
-sarcophagus became fashionable, stopped cremating
-Intentions put on interaction between figures
– youthful roman general without a helmet or weapon, shows invincibility
Catacomb of Priscilla
-c. 200-400
-Rome, Italy
-Late Antique Europe
-Excavated tufa and fresco
-Christians begin to create their own iconography
-Greek Chapel
-Orant Fresco-> three pics of veiled woman
-Good Shepherd Fresco ->Christ and the three lambs
Santa Sabina
-Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe.
-C 422-432 CE.
-Brick and Stone, wooden roof.
-basilica is the type of building
-apse is where the altar and best artwork is
-clerestory is where windows are. These windows let in an enormous amount of natural light. Gypsum is used instead of glass.
-large space, unlike Greek and Roman temples
-spolia are columns brought in from other parts of the empire
-knave is long part of the basilica
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel
-Early 6th century CE.
-Early Byzantine Europe.
-Illuminated manuscript (tempura, gold, and silver on purple vellum).
-fragment of copy of Greek Bible (Genesis)
-Written in silver ink on parchment that were dyed
-recalls the Ancient Greek and Roman world with the reclining nude next to the river and colonnade
-Medieval artists weren’t interested in realistic, consistent representations of space, but were satisfied with the more symbolic representations
San Vitale
-C 526-547 CE.
-Ravenna, Italy.
-Early Byzantine Europe.
-Brick, marble, and stone veneer; mosaic.
-during reign of Justinian
-central plan, not basilica. circular ambulatory
-double columns (not classical)
-most famous for mosaics, lots for gold color
-tesserae (colored cut glass) put in at different angles for different light reflections making the walls seem alive
-wreath of victory in center being held by four angels
-Justinian and Theodora both equal in mosaics, crown, halo, and same size.
-marble was cut in half and opened for decoration
-Saint Vitale primary martyr of Revenna, receives crown from Jesus
-mandorla: rainbow colored halo
Hagia Sophia
-532-537 CE
-Constantinople (Instabul).
-Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus.
-Brick and ceramic elements with the stone mosaic veneer.
-minerats: where muslims are called to prayer
-was a byzantine church
-spolia columns with capital decorations making it look light, instead of weight-bearing
-pendentive: a curved triangle of vaulting formed by the intersection of a dome with its supporting arches.
-the builders lined the sides of the windows with gold mosaic
-axial and circular.
-108 ft. diameter and 160 ft. tall
-\”suspended from heaven\”
-mosaics covered up when emperors thought people were worshiping art instead of divine.
Merovingian looped fibulae
-Early medieval Europe.
-mid-sixth century CE.
-Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones.
-brooch (pin) made popular by Roman military campaigns
-cloisonné: inlaid semi-precious stones (means partitioned in French). created by soldering wires onto a medal base
-The eagle, originally a pagan symbol of the sun, was used by Imperial Rome, and would later become an emblem to St. John.
Virgin (Theotokos) and child between Saint Theodore and George
-Early Byzantine Europe.
-6th or early 7th CE.
-Encaustic on wood.
-encaustic is a painting technique that uses wax as a medium to carry the color
-classical in style
-building feels familiar, but clearly not of this world
-hierarchy of bodies and scale
-saints are on the ground, but no one else is, so they create a stepping stone for the viewer
Lindisfarne Gospels
– Early medieval (Hiberno Saxon) Europe.
-C. 700 CE
-illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold vellum).
-act of meditation to make and look at
-overlapping, weaving, supposed to lose oneself following
-most likely Eadfrith
-cross made of wine glasses symbolic of Christ’s blood
-this calf, or ox, symbolizes Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.
-Matthew’s is a man, suggesting the human aspect of Christ; Mark’s the lion, symbolizing the triumphant and divine Christ of the Resurrection; and John’s the eagle, referring to Christ’s second coming.
Great Mosque
-Cordoba, Spain.
-C. 785-786 CE.
-Stone Masonry.
-hypostyle hall has a prayer room, a courtyard with a fountain in the middle, an orange grove, a covered walkway circling the courtyard, and a minaret.
-The focal point in the prayer hall is the famous horseshoe arched mihrab or prayer niche.
-Gold tesserae (small pieces of glass with gold and color backing) create a dazzling combination of dark blues, reddish browns, yellows and golds that form intricate calligraphic bands and vegetal motifs that adorn the arch.
-light, airy interior
Pyxis of al-Mughira.
-C. 968 CE.
-birthday present for holding cosmetics or perfumes (usually coming of age gifts)
-Ivory is durable, smooth, elegant, and easily carved, making it highly desirable for the creation of icons
-decorated with four eight-lobed medallions which are surrounded by figures and animals that include falconers, wrestlers, griffons, peacocks, birds, goats and animals to be hunted
-it was adorned in highly specific, royal iconography
-trace amounts of inlaid jade and other semi-precious stone
-there is an Arabic inscription in the kufic script runs around the base of the lid
Church of St. Foy
-Conques, France
-Romanesque Europe
– C. 1050-1130 CE
-Reliquary of Saint Foy: 9th century CE, with later additions.
-Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
-would have been painted
-shows damned and blessed
-Abraham in center of bottom left scene, St. Foy just above, devil bottom right, and Jesus very center
-contains ashes of St. Foy
-Martyr at age 12
-gems used to cover her dress
-her face is spolia from another Roman child
Bayeaux Tapestry
-Romanesque Europe (English or Norman).
-c. 1066-1080 CE.
-Embroidery on Linen
-its actually an embroidery
-commissioned by Bishop Odo, half-brother of William the conqueror
-Tells the story of the Battle of Hastings (1066) from William’s side
-fanciful beasts in upper and lower registers
-color is used in a non-natural way
-neutral background, flat figures
-75 scenes, 600 people, 230 feet long
-not certain how this was intended to be displayed
Chartres Cathedral
-Chartres, France.
-Gothic Europe.
-Original Construction 1145-1155 CE; Reconstruction 1194-1220 CE.
-Limestone, Stained glass.
-ribbed vaults: a vault supported by diagonal ribs. support a roof making a web-like pattern
-flying buttresses: composed of an arched structure that extends from the upper portion of a wall to a pier of great mass, in order to convey to the ground the lateral forces that push a wall outwards
-lots of stained glass windows
-dedicated to Mary
-Mary’s tunic was supposedly at the cathedral, everything burned, but tunic escaped fire
-right spire is from 1160, left is from 1507-13
-importance of church is reflected by the speed of construction (26 years)
-tall vertical nature of interior pulls eye up to the heavens
-dark, mysterious interior builds spiritual feeling
-stained glass enlivens the interior surfaces of the church
Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX of France. Scenes from the Apocalypse with Bible moralisees.
-Gothic Europe.
-C. 1225-1245 CE.
-Illuminated Manuscript (ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum).
-Moralized Bible
-Top left is mother, top right is teen Louis IX, bottom older monk dictating to scribe the roundels on the Scenes from the Apocalypse
-modeling is minimal
-Luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining of forms
Rottgen Pieta.
-Late medieval Europe.
-C. 1300-1325 CE.
-Painted wood.
-pieta: Mary with dead jesus on lap
-Mary is angry, confused, sad
-used for private devotion
-Humanizing of religious themes
-grape-like drops of Christ’s blood refers to Christ as \”mystical vineyard\”
Arena (Scrovegni) chapel, including Lamentation
-Padua, Italy.
-Unknown architect, Giotto di Bondone (artist).
-Chapel: c 1303 CE; Fresco: c 1305.
-Brick (architecture) and fresco.
-Enrico Scrovegni: son founded/patron to save his money-lending father
-next to ancient Roman arena
-lots of narrative scenes with trompe l’oeil, fake marble inbetween
-three registers spiraling downward (Mary, Christ’s life, then the passion)
-Enrico on the said of the saved handing Mary the chapel
-Christ is seen in profile because Roman coinage is the most important way of seeing someone
-crucified, taken down off the cross, and being mourned
-diagonal of mountain takes the viewer straight to christ
-figures with backs to viewer help create depth in the fresco
-individuality of different humans’ emotions
-virtues and vices lead to the last judgement along the exit way
-jesus in the very center, left side of painting the elect (saved), damned (hell) on the right side
-the elect are floating, children coming out of coffins to be judged
Golden Haggedah (The Plagues of Egypt, Scenes of Liberation, and the Preparation for Passover)
-Late Medieval Spain.
-C. 1320 CE.
-Illuminated manuscript (pigments and gold leaf on vellum).
-Educational, nor religious, so passes by no graven image rule
-Whether the artists of the Golden Haggadah themselves were Jewish is open to debate, but the dominant style of Christian art in Europe clearly influenced the artists of this manuscript.
-Granada, Spain.
-Nasrid Dynasty.
-1354-1391 CE.
-Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding.
-Islamic religious palace (good comparison versaille)
-The Alhambra’s nearly 26 acres include structures with three distinct purposes, a residence for the ruler and close family, the citadel, and an area called medina (where court officials lived and worked).
-The Alhambra’s most celebrated structures are the three original royal palaces: Comares Palace, the Palace of the Lions, and the Partal Palace.
-muqarnas: intricately carved system of brackets that hold up the vaulted ceiling. (honeycomb like stalactites)
-Nasrid rulers of Granada made water integral.
-Light airy interior with fortress-like exterior.
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece)
-1427-1432 CE.
-Oil on wood.
-So one can prayer in their own home
-only just over 2 feet tall, but very high level of detail
-all the detail because it was itended to be seen over and over again
-donors kneeling in closed garden
-extremely detailed, northern Renaissance artists focus on every detail
-Mary and archangel
-lots of things in a small room
-shiny pot by windows symbol of Mary’s purity
-baby with cross by window symbolizes the holy spirit
-linear perspective has not yet been developed
-white lily = Mary’s purity, three flower = trinity, unopened bud = unborn Jesus
-Joseph in his workshop on the right
-mousetrap symbolic of Jesus trapping the devil
-boring holes in wood symbolic of holes in Jesus’ hands
Pazzi Chapel
-C. 1429-1461 CE.
-Florence, Italy.
-Filippo Brunelleschi (architect).
-Pietra Serena greenish-grey stone hark back to ancients
-very similar to ancient floor plan
-two barrel vaults of either side of square with dome on top
-interior has a restrained sense of color (muted tones)
-geometric, balanced. order, clarity, and light heavily emphasized in renaissance.
Arnolfini Portrait
-C. 1434 CE
-Jan van Eyck
-oil on wood.
-thought to be wedding portrait, but now it is not considered to be a wedding, but double portrait.
-secularism and individualism
-shoes show importance, single candle shows god
-mirror shows perspective from behind, and tiny roundels around it has fine detail
-dog symbol of fidelity and loyalty
-oranges on the window show wealth since they were expensive in Flanders
-base of the room is cramped and filled with objects
-love of texture shows northern renaissance instead of anatomy like Italy’s renaissance
David (Donatello)
-C. 1440-1460 CE.
-first nude statue since ancient greek/roman times
-contrapposto, sense of movement
-eroticism with boots, hat, but nude
-Florentines defeated Duke of Milan like David defeated Goliath
-displayed in public, symbol of the city
-David cut off Goliath’s head with G’s head, hold rock and sword in hand (violence of Milan vs civilization of Florence)
Palazzo Rucellai
-C. 1450 CE.
-Florence, Italy.
-Leon Battista Alberti (architect).
-stone, masonry.
-columns from tuscan to ionic to corinthian. cornice at the top. (reference to colosseum)
-facade symmetrical with classical details
-emphasis on measure and harmony
-clearly referencing Medici palace, but better lightness and geometry
-palasters and rounded arches
-benches on ground floor outdoors for public
-entablature: separating registers
-1/3 of the building is unfinished
-palace is seen as a civic good
-Rucellai family from sales
-owners of house next door refused to sale
Madonna and Child with Two Angels.
-C 1465 CE.
-Fran Filipo Lippi.
-Tempera on wood.
-halos virtually gone
-figures have become so human that we almost feel as though we are looking at a portrait
-playful, humanist
-Mary is beautiful and realistic, angels look like children and playful
-frame of the window and painting very close to the same
-not just people, but background looks more realistic
-artist clearly focused on religion, but very interested in secular.
Birth of Venus
-c 1484-1486 CE
-Sandro Botticelli.
-Tempera on canvas.
-humanism, about beauty (divine)
-biblical figures and eve only naked women previously
-nearly contrapposto, not quite natural
Last Supper
-c 1494-1498 CE
-Leonardo da Vinci.
-Oil and tempura
-12 disciples, groups of 3
-linear perspective, everything to vanishing point
-\”one of you will betray me\”
-Jesus’ halo is the window’s light
-reaching to bread and wine, institution of the sacrament
-Judas, betrayer, is grasping bag of silver
-too crowded for table, so creates chaos
-Jesus as calm center, equilateral triangle with arms
-table blocks viewer from subjects in hard
-Peter has knife as if to defend Jesus from betrayer
-unified composition
-divinity of Jesus in center (vanishing point)
-oil and tempera experiment, so paint started to fade quickly
-Jesus light of the world (sun) because rays radiate off of him
Adam and Eve
-1504 CE
-Albrecht Durer
-Alpine background with mountains (northern ren.)
-Plaque says artist made this in 1504
-originally a commodity that moved between people
-more of a showing off of skill than a story
-both ideal figures (musculature and body shape)
-frontal, head turned to side and contrapposto
-a parrot, elk, ox, cat, rabbit, mouse, and goat
-Dürer sacrifices naturalism to showcase his mastery of Vitruvian ideals
-The elk, ox, rabbit, and cat exemplify the four humors
-Adam and Eve are in perfect balance until The Fall
-Dürer had a curious intellect and scientific mind in addition to being an artist
-He was a master of printmaking
Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes.
-Ceiling frescoes: 1508-1512; altar frescoes: c. 1536-1541 CE.
-Vatican City, Italy.
-innovative figures, massiveness, but elegant and beautiful
-Separation from light/darkness, to creation of sun, moon, and planets, separation of the land and sea, creation of Adam then Eve, expulsion of Adam and Eve, sacrifice of Noah, the flood, drunkenness of Noah
-Sibyls: ancient pagan foreseerers, predicting Jesus’ coming
-optimistic in ceiling frescoes, then darkness and pessimism in the Last Judgement
Last Judgement
-On the altar wall
-Christ in top center with saints and old testament figures on sides
-Christ’s right angels are pulled to heaven from graves
-Pair of people being pulled up to heaven by rosary beads
-This detail reaffirms a doctrine contested by the Protestants: that prayer and good works, and not just faith and divine grace, play a role in determining one’s fate in the afterlife
-Angels blowing trumpets are thick males with small heads
-Christ’s left damned are being delivered to hell by Chiron and demons (and punching angels)
-Bodies are distorted (small heads, big muscles and torsos)
-Over 300 muscular figures, in an infinite variety of dynamic poses, fill the wall to its edges
-Michelangelo worried about own soul, draws himself on St. Bartholomew’s skin between Christ and damned man
-painting is primarily about the triumph of Christ, the realm of heaven dominates
-the lunettes (semi-circular spaces) at the top right and left, angels display the instruments of Christ’s passion, thus connecting this triumphal moment to Christ’s sacrificial death
School of Athens.
-1509-1511 CE
-humanism, greek and roman celebration
-originally in a library in the papal apartments
-Each wall was a branch of human knowledge (Philosophy, Theology, Poetry, and Justice)
-Philosophy is the one we need to know
-Commissioned by Pope Julius II
-Plato (older) (theoretical, points up) and Aristotle (lighter blue) (physical, palm down) in center, and philosophers with each mindset on their respective sides (Pythagoras and Euclid)
-Architecture is classical (coffers, barrel vaults, and statues in niches)
-Heraclitus (added later) and Michelangelo similar since by themselves lost in thought
-Michelangelo stuck in a group of astronomers: Ptolemy and Zoroaster (shows individualism)
Isenheim altarpiece
-C. 1512-1516 CE
-Matthias Grunewald
-Oil on wood.
-it was created to serve as the central object of devotion
-Patron: St. Anthony (a patron saint of those suffering from skin diseases. he was also a religious hermit)
-lots dying by ergotism, a disease caused by consuming rye grain infected with fungus
-predella: belonging to a series of panels at the bottom of an altarpiece, usually painted
– In its common, closed position the central panels close to depict a horrific, night-time Crucifixion.
-enunciation, nativity, and resurrection in the second position
Entombment of Christ
-1525-1528 CE
-Jacopo da Pontormo
-Oil on wood.
-small cubic space
-roundels in pendetives
-no symbols makes it hard to tell whats happening
-not totally earthly setting, highly stylized
-full of constant movement, no vanishing point for eye to rest
-transitioning to more emotional art
Allegory of Law and Grace
-C. 1530 CE
-Lucas Cranach the Elder.
-Woodcut and letterpress.
-Protestant work representing faith, not good works, gets one to heaven
-two nude male figures appear on either side of a tree that is green and living on the \”Gospel\” side to the viewer’s right, but barren and dying on the \”law\” side to the viewer’s left
-law leads to hell when taken as a path to heaven
Venus of Urbino
-c 1538 CE
-Oil on canvas.
-Titian is Venetian
-Dont really know who she is, but Venus is more of a protective title
-about the beauty of the physical, very sensual environment
-applied numerous layers of oil paint, called glazing, creates a softness of paint
-scene is background balance, but doesn’t distract, her body
Conical Tower and circular wall of Great Zimbabwe
-c 1000-1400 CE
-Southeastern Zimbabwe
-Coursed Granite Blocks
-Shona People
-country named after this monument
-Zimbabwe means house of stone
-King lived here
-culture celebrates stonework
-had a sophisticated handling of stone
-Walls: 800 ft long, 32 ft tall, and 17 ft thick at the base
-Conical tower symbolizes a grain silo which meant wealth
-passageways inside of walls are very narrow
Great Mosque of Djenne.
-Founded c. 1200 CE; rebuilt 1906-7
-three minarets, one in center is a mihrab
-ostrich eggs are on top of the minarets, and they symbolize purity and fertility
-torons= wooden beams projecting from the walls
-wooden beams act as permanent ladders from the maintenance of building
-vertical fluting drains water off quickly
-Largest mud-brick mosque in the world
-entire city replasters mosque each year as a part of a ceremony
Wall Plaque, from Oba’s palace
-16th century CE
-Benin (Nigeria)
-Cast brass
-Edo Peoples
-900 brass plaques produced
-Decorated the walls of a royal palace
-Part of a large palace complex where the plaques covered wooden columns
-shows aspects of court life
-Oba was the king who was believed to be a direct descendant of the legendary founder of the tribe
-Hierarchy of scale
-Symbols of high rank are emphasized
-High relief
Sika dwa kofi (golden stool)
-c 1700 CE.
-Ashanti peoples (south central Ghana).
-Gold over wood and cast-gold attachments
-Symbol of the Ashanti peoples
-contains soul of the nation
-never used as stool bc it was not allowed to touch the ground
-Only king can touch it
-Entire surface is inlaid with gold
-Bells hang from the side to warn the king of danger
-There was a war over the stool in early 1900s bc of British sovereignty in Ghana. A British person tried to sit on the stool, which caused an uproar. War ended in British annexation and independence for Ghana
Ndop (portrait figure) of King Misha miShyaang maMbul.
-c. 1760-1780 CE
-Kuba peoples (Democratic republic of the Congo)
-commemorative portrait of Kuba rulers in an ideal state
-Actually a representation of king’s spirit
-Made after the death of the ruler
-symbols on base of figure represent king such as the sword in his left hand, held in a non aggressive way
-Oldest ndop in existence, one of the earliest known wooden African sculptures
-rubbed with oil to protect from insects
-All figures are sculpted using a one-to-three proportion—the head of the statue was sculpted to be one third the size of the total statue
Power figure (Nkisis n’kondi)
-c. late 19th century CE
-Kongo peoples (democratic republic of the Congo) -Wood and metal.
-spiritual importance and protection
-spirits are embedded in the images
-spirits can be called upon to bless or to harm others, cause death, or give life
-in order to prod image into action, nails and blades are often inserted into the work or removed from it (sometimes licked nail before inserting it)
-medical properties are inserted into the body cavity; thought to be a person’s life or soul
Female (Pwo) mask
-Chokwe peoples (democratic republic of congo).
-Late 19th to early 20th century CE.
-Wood, fiber, pigment, and metal.
-danced by a male dancer acting like a woman to honor
-closed mouth and eyes because the perfect woman is introspective and doesn’t gossip
-Chokwe people are matrilineal, mask honors women
-sense of calm
-symmetrical, narrowing toward chin
-rafia: grass skirt or weaving material
-not just ideal women as birther, but all of Chokwe people
Portrait mask (Mblo)
-Early 20th century CE.
-Baule peoples (Cote d’Ivoire)
-Wood and pigment.
-wear to masquerade in which the mask’s resembling person is honored
-would be a gift from a group, not something you buy
-this one was meant to honor a respected member of the Baule society
-idealized representation of a real person; not like a modern portrait (portraits are rare in African art)
-Broad foreheads, pronounced eye-sockets, column-shaped nose
-quiet faces, introspective eyes, peaceful face, meditative, eyebrows in an arch
Bundu mask
-19th to 20th century CE
-Sanda Society, Mende peoples (West African forests of Sierra Leone and Liberia).
-wood, cloth, and fiber.
-only masquerade tradition were women wear the mask
-chrysalis shape
-idealized female beauty, large forehead
-elaborate hairstyle symbolizes wealth
-small eyes in shape of slits, small mouth as to not reveal secrets
-Sande society group of women who prepare girls to adulthood
-costumed women wear a black gown made of raffia that hides the body
-mask rests on head, head does not go in the mask
-mask coated with palm oil for a lustrous effect
-individuality of each mask is stressed
Ikenga (shrine figure)
-c. 19th to 20th century CE
-Igbo peoples (Nigeria)
– wood
-Ikenga: strong right arm
-honors the right hand, holds the tools/weapons, makes sacrifices and rituals
-traditional masculine associations of strength and potency
-hardwoods considered masculine
-tells about the owner’s character, life, and lineage
-personal god of achievement and success
-requires blessings before use
-horns symbolize power
-more success means commissioning a more elaborate figure
-maintained in a man’s house, destroyed when owner dies, another can reuse it if it is not destroyed
Lukasa (memory board)
-c. 19th to 20th century CE
-Mbudye Society, Luba peoples (Dem. Rep. Congo).
-Wood, beads, and metal.
-history was traditionally performed—not read
-The recounting of the past is performative and includes dance and song
-it is used as a mnemonic device, touching and feeling the beads, shells, and pegs to recount history and solve current problems
-kingship is sacred, and the elite Mbudye Society use the lukasa to recount history in the context of spiritual rituals
-diviners can also read the Lukasa
-Each lukasa is different but small enough to hold in the left hand
-The information can be interpreted in a variety of ways and the expert might change his manner of delivery and his reading based upon his audience and assignment
Aka elephant mask
-c. 19th to 20th century CE.
-Bamileke (Cameroon, western grass fields region).
-Wood, woven raffia, cloth, and beads.
-be worn with red feather headdress and leopard skin pelt
-leopard and elephant symbols of king’s power
-Fon: divine king who could transform into elephant
-worn by court officials, titleholders, and warriors
-beadwork a symbol of power
-mask goes over head with two folds hanging down in front and behind the body
-for performance; dancing, drums and gong, spears, and horsetails
-human face
Reliquary figure (byrei)
-c. 19th to 20th century CE
-Fang peoples (southern Cameroon)
-reliquary: container of relics
-feet dangling over rim symbol of protection
-figure guards the head box of the gaze of women or young boys
-Bieri figures are based on characteristics Fang people think highly of: tranquility, introspection, and vitality
-surfaces were rubbed with oils to add luster and protection from insects
-belly button and genitals emphasize life, prayerful gesture and somber look emphasize death
-abstraction of human body an attraction for the early twentieth century artists
Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife (Opo Ogoga).
-c. 1910-1914 CE.
-Olowe of Ise (Yoruba peoples).
-Wood and pigment.
-posts for the rulers of the Ekiti-Yoruba kingdom in Nigeria
-One of four carved for the palace at Ikere
-Negative space creates an openness in composition
-King is the focal point in relationship btw his figure and others represented on the post
-behind him his large-scale senior wife is supporting the throne
-she crowns the king during the coronation, protetcs him during his reign
-small figures are his junior wife, flute player, trickster god, and a now missing fan bearer
-most veranda posts were painted (traces of paint remain)
Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza
-c. 1541-1542 CE.
-Viceroyalty of New Spain
-Ink and color on paper.
-The Codex contains a wealth of information about the Aztecs and their empire
-Codex’s frontispiece relates information about the organization and foundation of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, or the place of the prickly pear cactus
-The image displays the quadripartite division of the city and the canals running through it
-The division of the city into four parts was intended to mirror the organization of the universe, believed to be four parts aligned with the four cardinal directions (north, east, south, west).
-patron deity, Huitzilopochtli (Hummingbird)
-artist emphasizes the military power of the Aztecs by showing two soldiers in hierarchic scale
-defeated men come from two different locations, both identified with place glyphs as Colhuacan and Tenayuca
Il Gesu, including Triumph of the Name of Jesus ceiling fresco
-Rome, Italy.
-Giacomo da Vignola, plan (architect); Giacomo della Porta, facade (architect); Giovanni Battista Gaulli, ceiling fresco (artist).
-Church: 16th century CE
-facade: 1568-1584 CE
-fresco and stucco figures: 1676-1679 CE.
-Brick, marble, fresco, and stucco.
-ambiguous borders
-starburst around the IHS (jesus)
-interior without aisles, so most likely just an event hall
Hunters in the snow.
– 1565 CE.
-Pieter Bruegel the Elder
-Oil on wood.
-panel painting made for a merchant
-backs turned to viewer, heads of dogs down. shows melancholy of hunters’ scarce find
-landscape is happier than hunters, shows people having fun on the ice.
-landscape given meaning through the work and people in it
-lots of small literary narratives deep in the painting
-partially imaged, composes landscape
-harsh, frozen landscape made warm by the people in it
Mosque of Selim II.
-1568-1575 CE.
-Edirne, Turkey.
-Sinan (architect)
-Brick and Stone.
-Sultan Selim II was stationed here as a prince when his father campaigned in Persia in 1548 and he enjoyed hunting on the outskirts of the city.
-Edirne was the first major city that Europeans traveling to the Ottoman Empire reached, so it was built to impress
-madrasa is a school
-ethereal dome seems weightless as it floats above the prayer hall
-he dome rests on eight muqarnas-corbelled squinches that are in turn supported by eight large piers.
-The Qibla wall (the wall that faces Mecca) projects outward further emphasizing the openness the interior space
-Trying to outdo Christian architecture and Hagia Sophia (slightly larger dome)
Calling of St. Matthew.
-c. 1597-1601 CE.
-Oil on canvas.
-St. Peter and Jesus on the right
-Jesus looks younger and more delicate while Peter looks rough and heavy
-Hand reference to Sistine Chapel
-point also follows diagonal of light toward St. Matthew
-Moment of conversion with tax collector in tavern
-not only is he a tax collector, but in a shady location with weapons
-chiaroscuro and tenebrism, use of dramatic light and dark for signifying importance or traits
-removed from the idealized beauty of high renaissance
-religion brought down to the everyday level, even dirty and gritty
-Coin in hat band shows Matthew’s love for money
Henri IV receives the Portrait of Marie de Medici
-Jupiter and Juno at the top
-Hymen (left) and Cupid (right) in midair
-France is behind Henry IV at the bottom
-#6 of 24 in the cycle. the cycle idealizes and allegorizes Marie’s life in light of the peace and prosperity she brought to the kingdom
-line from Juno to Marie to baby shows her job is to give an heir to Henry
-paintings make Marie seem as if it was divine intervention for her to be queen
-match made of love, sanctified by gods, and a political move
-Puti playing with Henry’s helmet signifies Henry putting away war for love
Self-Portrait with Saskia.
-1636 CE.
-Rembrandt van Rijn.
-produced more self-portraits than any artist before him (roughly 75)
-the couple is almost shown as enjoying a quiet moment in their daily life
-could be a marriage portrait as well as a self-portrait.
-This etching marks the first time that Rembrandt has presented himself as an artist at work
-Etching is a printmaking process in which a metal plate (usually copper) is coated with a waxy, acid-resistant material
-The figure of Rembrandt is more deeply bitten than that of Saskia, a technique that not only suggests that the artist is closer to us, but also places greater emphasis on him.
-one in a series
-both playing \”dress-up\”
-image of harmony, only portrait with Saskia
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.
-1638-1646 CE.
-Rome, Italy.
-Francesco Borromini (architect).
-stone and stucco.
-Commissioned by Cardinal Francesco Barberini in 1634 for the Holy Order of the Trinity
-worked for free, allowed himself full creativity
-often includes wavy architecture
-very math based, lots of triangles in floorplan
-also very creative and emotional
-stone is cut in a very ornate way
-unusually small site, fascade is higher than ground level
-used lots of white, avoided many baroque colors, but used baroque movement
Ecstasy of St. Teresa.
-c. 1647-1652 CE
-Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria.
-Rome, Italy.
-Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
-Marble (sculpture); stucco and gilt bronze (chapel).
-deeply religious, interested in theater. brought two together for this work of art
-patrons in fake box seats watching her have her religious moments.
-used sexual experience as a metaphor to explain her vision’s feeling
-in the Cornaro chapel
Angel with the Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei
-c. 17th century CE
-Master of Calamarca (La Paz school)
-Oil on canvas.
-military pose, most likely one of a series of angels in military poses
-Spanish aristocratic dress in 17th century
-Asiel Timor Dei means Asiel, the angel, fears god
-Representing celestial, aristocratic, and military beings all at once
-These pieces are used to force catholicism and convert heathens
-The Catholic Counter Reformation held a militaristic ideology that portrayed the Church as an army and angels as its soldiers
-In Catholic teachings, angels explained the spiritual function of the cosmos, and thus could easily stand in for sacred indigenous beings
-Angel is looking graceful, and does not have finger on trigger or gun at eye level
-The dress of Asiel Timor Dei was an Andean invention that combines contemporary European fashion and the typical dress of indigenous noblemen.
-angels with guns portrayed the first conquistadores as messengers from God
Las Meninas.
-c. 1656 CE.
-Diego Velazquez.
-Oil on canvas.
-self-portrait of Velazquez painting the painting we are looking at.
-elevates Velazquez to knighthood with necklace in painting
-mirror in the back reflects Philip IV and wife, controversial as to why they are there (could be looking at the painting, could be in the actual painting)
-monarch employing an artist
-painter isn’t just a craftsman, but an intellectual
-pre-expressionism, but you can see the free brush strokes. inspiration in the future
-heightened experience of the intimacy of the family, condensed reality
-artist placing himself in royal company pushes towards painters being elevated in status
Woman Holding a Balance.
-c. 1664 CE.
-Johannes Vermeer
-Oil on canvas.
-woman is in upper merchant class based on her clothing
-window lets in light on her and last judgement painting
-head divides the blessed from the damn
-painting reminder of the changes taking place in the 17th century. balancing wealth and spirituality
-she could be attending to her wealth and keeping the spiritual in the background
-vanitas: a painting symbolizing the transient nature of earthly life and pleasure
-genre scene: scene from everyday life.
-Vermeer depicts intimate scenes in a dutch home
Palace at Versailles.
-Begun 1669 CE.
-Versailles, France.
-Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architects).
-Masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf (architecture); marble and branzo (sculpture); gardens.
-Louis XIV first decided to build a new palace and move his court out of Paris, there was nothing on his chosen site at Versailles but a smallish hunting lodge
-The place has 700 rooms, 2,153 windows, and takes up 67,000 square meters of floor space
-Versailles was meant to emphasize Louis’s importance
-absolutism being exhibited in architecture
-Louis XIV was the \”sun king.\” lots of references to the sun
-He had the whole palace and its massive gardens built along an East/West axis so the sun would rise and set in alignment with his home
-And he filled both the palace and its gardens with sculpture, painting, and fountains that all focused on himself
-bombarded with room after room of marble and gold and paintings
-lots of waking up and going to bed rituals for king and queen
-Of the 700 rooms inside the palace, there are a few notable ones that served very particular functions (Salon of War, Salon of Peace, Study for Dogs etc.)
-Hall of Mirrors runs along the entire length of the central building
-One wall contains a row of giant windows looking out over the gardens, and the other wall is covered with 357 mirrors
-The palace’s outside isn’t as ornate as its inside
-outside based more on classical symmetry
-the classical architecture was intended to remind people of the greatness of the antique Greek and Roman past
-Louis XIV liked linking himself directly to the Greek god Apollo
Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and hunting scene
-c 1697-1701 CE
-Circle of Gonzalez Family
-Tempera and resin on wood, shell inlay.
-Commissioned by viceroy of Spain, Jose Sarmiento de Valladares
-displayed in Viceregal Palace in Mexico City
-combines biombos and enconchados
-two faces: one war scene, other hunting scene
-hunting scene for small receptions
-war scene for grander room and political importance
-war scene depicts Great Turkish War 1683-1699
-illustrates a scene of Hapsburg power
The Virgin of Guadalupe.
-c 1698 CE.
-Miguel Gonzalez.
-Based on original Virgin of Guadalupe, Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City. 16th Century CE.
-Oil on canvas on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
-Painting describes an event in which Mary appeared to Native Americans on a hill called Tepeyac, a shrine sacred to a pre-Columbian goddess
-Mary ordered Native Americans to convert
-Mary made hilltop flower and Juan Diego brought the flowers to a archbishop
-Virgin of Guadalupe most revered symbol in Mexico
-Symbol of Mexico: eagle perched on a cactus at bottom center
– Mary always on a crescent moon, surrounded by sunrays, with clouds behind her in Guadalupe image
-4 roundels depicting apparition to Juan Diego
-brocade on Virgin’s robes made of enconchados
Fruit and Insects
-c. 1711 CE
-Rachel Ruysch
-Oil on Canvas
-specialized in still life for the merchant class.
-about the harvest of the autumn, but also symbolic value
-autumn symbolizes impending doom/death
-a composite of the studies of all the food items put together
-renewed interest in botany and the natural world
-wheat and grapes together would trigger eucharist thoughts in christians at the time
-vanitas painting, gives the sense that nothing will last
Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo.
-c 1715 CE
-Attributed to Juan Rodrigues
-Oil on canvas.
-genre of painting, known as pinturas de castas, or caste paintings
-The numbers and textual inscriptions on casta paintings create a racial taxonomy
-rationally categorizing based on ethnic make-up
-mestizo, denotes a person born of a European and indigenous south american
-mecos, or barbarians, are indigenous peoples who chose to live outside \”civilized\” social norms and were not Christian
-casta paintings convey the notion that one’s social status is tied to one’s perceived racial makeup
-a mother and father flanking two children, one of whom is a servant carrying the couple’s baby
The Tete a Tete
-c. 1743 CE
-William Hogarth
-Oil on canvas
-art is made for middle class audience now with prints being widely distributed
-makes fun of aristocracy since sold to middle class
-making fun of arranged marriage for economic purposes
-everyone is in it for their own self interest
-husband seems to have come home from a sleepless night with another lover
-wife appears to have had a lover over until husband came home
-music symbol of pleasure
-saints in back are irony pointing out how unfaithful married couple are
Borobudur Temple
-c. 750-842 C.E.
-Central Java, Indonesia

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