A&P 1 Midterm Ch 2

chemical reactions in organisms
Biochemistry is the study of

We eat chemicals, body functions reflect cellular fuctions that reflect chemical changes, drugs are chemicals, chemical reactions enable our bodies to extract energy from nutrients
Chemistry is important to the study of physiology because

Iron
Which substance is an element

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
account for more that 95% of the human body

16
Atomic weight of an element the contains 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons is

neutrons
The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in the number of

2 electrons
The first electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of

lose 3 electrons from its second shell
An atom that has 3 electrons in its second shell and a filled first shell will

decomposition reaction
AB—->A+B

Neutral
A solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

Acids
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water are

Exchange reaction
A chemical reaction in which pairs of different molecules trade positions

Electrolytes
substances that ionize when dissolved in water

pH scale
measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution

water
the most abundant inorganic substance in cells

rises about 7.4
A person has alkalosis if the blood pH

elements; atoms
Matter is composed of ____, which are composed of _____

protons; number of protons plus neutrons
Atomic number equals the number of ______ and atomic weight equals the ____

growth of body parts
Synthesis reactions are particularly important in the body for

covalent bond
atoms share pairs of electrons

On the pH scale
a 10 fold difference in hydrogen ion concentration separates each whole number, the lower the whole number on the scale, the greater the H+ concentration, pH values about 7 are basic, pH values below 7 are acidic.

cations
Sodium ions and calcium ions are examples of

exchange reaction
An acid reacting with a base

contain carbon; do not contain
Organic molecules ____, whereas inorganic molecules ____ carbon

In the body, oxygen
releases energy from glucose during cellular respiration

carbohydrates
Contain C, H, O, with twice as many hydrogen as oxygen, provide much of the energy that the cell requires, often are stored as reserve energy supplies, include sugars and starches

a simple carbohydrate
has a molecular formula of C6H12O6

Lipids
are insoluble in water, include phospholipids, cholesterol, and fats, contain C, H, and O, but with proportionately less oxygen than in carbohydrates, and are organic.

weak hydrogen bonds break
a protein can denature when

Oxygen
What is not organic?

have more single carbon-carbon bonds
Saturated fats _______ than unsaturated

Proteins
are structural materials, are chemical messengers, contain C,H,O, & N & sometimes sulfur, can function as enzymes

electrolytes
Bases reacting with acids form ________ and water.

Enzyme
protein that speeds up chemical reactions without being changed or depleted

DNA
stores genetic information.

Nucleic acids
composed of building blocks called nucleotides

RNA & DNA
Nucleic acids include

DNA holds genetic information and RNA uses that information to synthesize protein
DNA & RNA differ in that

Carbon and hydrogen
An organic compound contains

4
Carbon can form ___ covalent bonds

Glycogen
What is not a monosaccharide?

A triglyceride consists of
A triglyceride consists of

lipids
Which compound is not hydrophilic

True
The symbol Na+ represents a sodium atom that has lost an electron.

ion
At atom that has gained or lost electrons

True
Water is an example of a compound

11
What is the number of protons in an atom of sodium?

18
If chlorine has the atomic mass of 35 and the atomic number of 17: What is the number of neutrons in chlorine

electrons
the sub-atomic particles with “no mass”

protons
the sub-atomic particle that the atomic number is based on

47
What is the atomic mass of an atom with 23 protons, 24 neutrons, and 25 electrons?

6
How many electrons are in the outer energy level of an electrically neutral oxygen atom?

the name given to any positively charged ion
cation

ionic
type of bond is formed by the transfer of electrons

anion
negatively charged ion

Isotope
Refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses

beryllium
Atomic weight of an element the contains 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons is

cation
Is an atom of potassium more likely to become a cation or anion?

single replacement
type of reaction is demonstrated as A + BC –> AC + B

atom
smallest unit of matter

8
A total of how many electrons are needed to fill the outer shell of most atoms

Hydrogen
type of bond is found between the bases in a DNA molecule

Enzyme
type of protein aids in chemical reactions without itself being used up

denatured
If a protein’s shape is changed then it has been___________.

outer energy level of electrons
An atom, to become stable, is always trying to fill it’s ___________.

synthesis reaction
A + B —> AB is an example of a

Ionic Bond
A chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons

glycerol
What is not a type of carbohydrate

Disaccharide
Sucrose is a type of

fat
What is not a major class of organic compound

starch
Glycogen is most similar to

Reactants
Substances that enter into a chemical reaction are

Carbon
can form 4 covalent bonds

Polar
A nonsymmetrical distribution of electrical charges

H O C
All carbohydrates are composed of

Double replacement
NaOH + HCl —-> NaCl + H2O is an example of

Oxygen
The most abundant element in living things

Carbon Dioxide
Inorganic substance that is a waste product in respiratio

Carbohydrates
We get most of our food energy from

Polysaccharide
Glycogen, a major nutrient reserve of animals, is an example of a

Cholesterol
the steroid that helps to form other steroids

Covalent bond and Peptide bond
The bond between amino acids is a/an

Monosaccharide & Glucose
Simple sugars

Nucleic Acids
RNA and DNA are together known as this type of organic compound

0-14
pH scale ranges from

carboxyl group
is not a part of a nucleotide

Polymerization
occurs by repeatedly forming peptide bonds that link individual amino acids together into a chain

strong acid
A pH of 3 is

Membrane components & Energy Molecules
Lipids are important as

glycerol and saturated fatty acids
Fats are best described as being composed of

Phospholipid
has a hydrophobic and a hydrophyllic portion

14, 13, 14
If an atom had the atomic number 14 and atomic mass of 27, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons would it have

Proteins and catalysts
Enzymes are

Carbohydrates
composed of C,H, and O in which there are twice as many H to O

Hydrophillic
refers to the “water loving” nature of the phospholipid head

nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
The 4 organic compounds

buffer
chemical that resists pH changes

Ne
Which element is inert

Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins

Solid Gel
The assembly of irreversibly denatured protein molecules results in formation of a _________

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