Anthropology Test 3

question

Most anthropologists are employed in A. the business sector. B. international organizations. C. colleges and museums. D. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). E. government.
answer

Colleges and museums
question

Robert Redfield explained the relations between urban and rural communities by arguing that A. peasants were culturally isolated from cities. B. cities were centers from which cultural innovations were spread to rural and tribal areas. C. kin-based ethnic associations only exist in rural areas. D. there are so many connections between rural and urban areas that it is not useful to distinguish between them. E. urban centers have more in common with each other, even across national boundaries, than they do with rural areas in the same country.
answer

cities were centers from which cultural innovations were spread to rural and tribal areas.
question

__________ refers to the beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and curing illness. A. Disease theory B. Medical anthropology C. Health care system D. Shaman E. Psychosemantics
answer

Health Care system
question

A disease is defined as a(n) A. health problem as it is experienced by the affected individual. B. artificial product of biomedicine. C. consequence of foraging. D. unnatural state of health. E. scientifically identified health threat.
answer

Scientifically identified health threat
question

Illness is defined as a(n) A. nonexistent ailment (only \”diseases\” are real). B. artificial product of biomedicine. C. scientifically identified health threat. D. purely linguistic problem. E. socially defined.
answer

socially defined
question

The __________ disease theory would attribute a person’s illness to the consumption of hot or cold substances under the wrong conditions. A. personalistic B. naturalistic C. biomedical D. emotionalistic E. tribal
answer

Naturalistic
question

Anthropology may help the progress of education by enabling educators to avoid all of the following except A. indiscriminate assignment of nonnative speakers of English to the same classrooms as children with \”behavior problems.\” B. tolerance of ethnic diversity. C. incorrect application of labels (e.g., \”learning impaired\”). D. sociolinguistic discrimination. E. ethnic stereotyping.
answer

Tolerance of ethnic diversity
question

__________ is not a proper role for an applied anthropologist. A. Working with local people in addition to \”experts\” and officials B. Identifying locally perceived needs for change C. Helping to design and implement culturally appropriate development programs D. Helping to impose development programs designed solely by international authorities E. Protecting local people from projects and policies not in their best interest
answer

Helping to impose development programs designed solely by international authorities
question

. __________ disease theory underlies traditional understandings of susto. A. Personalistic B. Naturalistic C. Biomedical D. Emotionalistic E. Tribal
answer

Emotionalistic
question

A common goal of development projects is to A. increase socioeconomic stratification. B. promote ethnocide. C. facilitate cultural assimilation. D. decrease local autonomy. E. increase equity.
answer

increase equity
question

The Malagasy development program illustrates the importance of A. the local government’s commitment to improving the lives of its citizens. B. replacing subsistence farming with a viable cash crop. C. replacing outdated traditional techniques of irrigation. D. breaking down corporate descent groups, which are too independent and interfere with development. E. the top-down strategies developed by the United Nations.
answer

The local government’s commitment to improving the livs of its citizens
question

__________ refers to the tendency to view less-developed countries as more alike than they are. A. Cultural relativism B. Ethnobias C. Overinnovation D. Underdifferentiation E. Intervention philosophy
answer

Underdifferentiation
question

The postwar baby boom of the late 1940s and 1950s A. fueled the general expansion of the American educational system, including academic anthropology. B. promoted renewed interest in applied anthropology during the 1950s and 1960s. C. brought anthropology into most high school curricula. D. produced a new interest in ethnic diversity. E. brought an end to the world system.
answer

Fueled the general expansion of the american educational system, including academic anthropology
question

__________ should not be one of the goals of an applied anthropological approach to urban programs. A. Working with the community to ensure that the change is implemented correctly B. Identifying key social groups in the urban context C. Translating the needs and desires of the community to funding agencies D. Creating a single universal policy to be applied to all urban communities E. Eliciting wishes from the target community
answer

creating a single universal policy to be applied to all urban communities
question

The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is A. applied anthropology. B. economic anthropology. C. conceptual anthropology. D. sociobiology. E. participant observation.
answer

applied anthropology
question

Cultural resource management is an example of applied A. ethnology that seeks to preserve indigenous cultures. B. biological anthropology. C. anthropology that could pose an ethical dilemma to the anthropologist. D. linguistic anthropology that seeks to preserve linguistic diversity. E. ethnography.
answer

anthropology that could pose an ethical dilemma to the anthropologist
question

A reason that the Madagascar project to increase rice production was successful is that A. Malagasy leaders were of the peasantry, or had strong ties to it, and therefore were prepared to follow the descent-group ethic of pooling resources for the good of the group as a whole. B. the elites and the lower class were of different origins and therefore had no strong connections through kinship, descent, or marriage. C. there is a clear fit between capitalist development schemes and corporate descent-group social organization. D. it took into account that native forms of social organization inevitably break down into nuclear family organization, impersonality, and alienation. E. the educated members of Malagasy society are those who have struggled to fend for themselves and therefore brought an innovative kind of independence to the project.
answer

Malagasy leaders were of the peasantry, or had strong ties to it, and therefore were prepared to follow the descent-group ethic of pooling resources for the good of the group as a whole.
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”Malinowski proposed that \”practical anthropology\” should focus on the diffusion of European culture into tribal societies\” B. \”Malinowski was not opposed to aiding colonial regimes by studying land tenure and land use in order to recommend how much land local people should keep and what Europeans should get\” C. \”the British Empire saw no use for anthropologists, and British colonials purposefully distanced themselves from anthropologists in the field\” D. \”a historical association existed between early anthropology, especially in Europe, and colonialism\” E. \”during World War II, American anthropologists studied Japanese and German culture to predict the behavior of the wartime enemies of the United States\”
answer

\”The british empire saw no use for anthropologist, and british colonials purposefully distanced themselves from anthropologist in the field\”
question

Applied anthropology’s systemic perspective recognizes that A. diseases affect many different systems of the human body. B. changes do not occur in a vacuum, and a program or project has multiple effects. C. the world-system theory of Wallerstein provides the best basis for applied work. D. it is necessary for applied work to focus entirely on educational systems. E. the most effective viewpoint for applied work is always that of a state administrator.
answer

changes do not occur in a vacuum, and a program or project has multiple effects.
question

A common problem for international development projects is that they A. lack an intervention philosophy. B. often assume the best way to increase production and income is through industrialization. C. tend to use local cultural models and processes rather than the more advanced Western models. D. frequently make unnecessary attempts to extend indigenous lifestyles that are already obsolete. E. overemphasize the needs of local communities.
answer

often assume the best way to increase production and income is through industrialization.
question

In a comparative study of 68 rural development projects, it was found that A. overinnovation was the most productive development model. B. culturally compatible projects were twice as successful as incompatible ones. C. the socialist bloc model was the most successful. D. the capitalist bloc model was the most financially successful. E. the underdifferentiated model led to the most equity.
answer

culturally compatible projects were twice as successful as incompatible ones.
question

Development projects that assume all \”less-developed countries\” are alike A. have only limited chances of succeeding. B. are the most successful kind of development scheme. C. have never taken place. D. are known as utopian intervention. E. are known as research and development.
answer

have only limited chances of succeeding
question

The original marketing strategy of McDonald’s in Brazil A. promoted a beer with lunch. B. completely changed the menu to include Brazilian favorites. C. tried to Americanize Brazilian eating habits. D. took into consideration the Brazilian habit of eating hot foods, like hamburgers, on the beach. E. focused on the Sunday evening dinner market.
answer

tried to americanize brazilian eating habits
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”one of the most valuable tools in applying anthropology is the ethnographic method\” B. \”many applied anthropologists have worked with development agencies such as the World Bank and USAID\” C. \”the application of anthropology to social problems has been a central concern in the discipline since its origin\” D. \”applied anthropology is a recently developed subfield within anthropology and reflects an entirely new concern with the application of anthropology to social problems\” E. \”applied anthropologists work with development projects, in education, medicine, and business, as well as many other fields\”
answer

\”Applied anthropology is recently developed sebfield within anthropology and reflects an entirely new concern with the application of anthropology to social problems\”
question

__________ is the postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband’s community. A. Neolocality B. Patrilocality C. Matrilocality D. Ambilocality E. Uxorilocality
answer

Patrilocality
question

One of the main differences between descent groups and nuclear families is that A. descent groups are typically not involved with politics, while nuclear families are. B. nuclear families are always exogamous, while descent groups are always endogamous. C. descent groups are permanent, while nuclear families are not. D. members of descent groups are called affines, while members of nuclear families are consanguines. E. nuclear families are found only in industrial societies, while descent groups are found only in foraging societies.
answer

descent groups are permanent, while nuclear families are not.
question

Incest taboo A. only exists in societies that practice patrilocal residence. B. is a feature of a capitalist economy. C. does not eliminate incest. D. has a genetic basis. E. is not documented in classic ethnographies.
answer

does not eliminate incest
question

__________ refers to a unilineal descent group whose members claim, but cannot demonstrate, common descent from an apical ancestor. A. Clan B. Lineage C. Extended family D. Family of procreation E. Family of orientation
answer

Clan
question

__________ is a nonhuman apical ancestor of a clan. A. Tarawad B. Sororate C. Levirate D. Totem E. Pater
answer

Totem
question

The basic social units typically found in foraging societies are A. band and clan. B. lineage and nuclear family. C. extended family and clan. D. nuclear family and band. E. band and extended family.
answer

Nuclear family and band
question

The relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poorer North Americans is A. the result of a patrilocal residence pattern. B. an adaptation to poverty. C. maladaptive, since smaller families would have fewer expenses. D. the result of bifurcate merging, a practice brought to the United States by Scotch-Irish immigrants during the early part of the 20th century. E. the reason welfare in the United States is ineffective.
answer

an adaption to poverty
question

__________ is the most stable social group among band societies with a seasonal pattern of population dispersal. A. The lineage B. The band C. The nuclear family D. The clan E. The expanded family household
answer

The nuclear family
question

The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but A. not all cultures have one. B. not all cultures define incest the same way. C. not all cultures know about incest. D. some cultures have replaced it with the levirate. E. some cultures nevertheless encourage incest.
answer

not all cultures define incest the same way
question

Substantial gifts given by the bride’s family or kin is A. bride theft B. elopement C. dowry D. bridewealth E. cross-cousin marriage
answer

dowry
question

Lobolo is a substantial gift to be given before, at, or after a marriage A. by the wife to her husband. B. by the husband to his wife. C. by the wife’s kin to her husband. D. by the wife’s kin to her husband’s kin. E. by the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin.
answer

by the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin
question

The custom in which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband is a A. sororate marriage B. serial polyandry C. filial marriage D. levirate marriage E. polygynous marriage
answer

levirate marriage
question

The anthropological term for a socially recognized mother is A. mater. B. genitor. C. mother of orientation. D. pater. E. mother of procreation.
answer

mater
question

In matrilineal societies A. daughters become lifetime members of their mother’s group, but sons belong to their father’s group. B. sons become lifetime members of their mother’s group, but daughters belong to their father’s group. C. descent groups include only the children of the group’s women. D. descent groups include only the children of the group’s men. E. postmarriage residence tends to be patrilocal.
answer

descent groups include only the children of the group’s women
question

__________ refers to sexual relations with someone considered to be a close relative. A. Levirate B. Sororate C. Polyandry D. Incest E. Exogamy
answer

incest
question

Rules of endogamy A. prove that the incest taboo is not a cultural universal. B. encourage people to disregard social distinctions in choosing mates. C. tend to maintain social distinctions between groups. D. expand a population’s gene pool. E. result in ever-widening kinship networks.
answer

tend to maintain social distinctions between groups
question

__________ refers to the practice of marrying a person outside of the group to which one belongs. A. Incest B. Exogamy C. Hypogamy D. Endogamy E. Polygamy
answer

Exogamy
question

In patrilineal societies, lobolalike gifts A. ensure the wealth of the wife. B. ensure the wealth of the children. C. make the children born to the woman full members of her husband’s descent group. D. make the husband part of the wife’s descent group. E. has little effect on descent groups.
answer

make the children born to the woman full members of her husbands descent group
question

The custom of a dowry that goes to the husband’s family correlates with A. low male status. B. high male status. C. low female status. D. high female status. E. descent inheritance system.
answer

low female status
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”divorce is more common now than it was a century ago\” B. \”the more substantial the joint property, the more complicated the divorce\” C. \”divorce is harder in a patrilineal society\” D. \”divorce is unique to industrialized nation-states\” E. \”substantial bridewealth discourages divorce\”
answer

\”divorced is unique to industrialized nation-status\”
question

Polygyny is A. a situation in which a woman has more than one husband at the same time. B. the custom whereby a wife marries the brother of her dead husband. C. the type of marriage that follows divorce. D. the custom whereby a widower marries the sister of his dead wife. E. a situation in which a man has more than one wife at the same time.
answer

a situation in which a man has more than one wife at the same time
question

Exogamy is adaptive because it A. increases the number of individuals that one can rely on in times of need. B. increases the likelihood that disadvantageous alleles will find phenotypic expression and eliminate them from the population. C. impedes peaceful relations among social groups and therefore promotes population expansion. D. was an important causal factor in the origin of the state. E. reduces the gene pool of a community.
answer

increases the number of individuals that one can rely on in times of need
question

The statement, __________, is true. A. \”Polyandry is found only among mining communities in Madagascar\” B. \”Polyandry is a cultural adaptation to the high labor demands of rice cultivation\” C. \”polyandry is a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with male travel for trade, commerce, and warfare\” D. \”polyandry almost always takes the form of a sororate\” E. \”polyandry fails to meet Leach’s criteria for marriage\”
answer

\”polyandry is cultural adaption to mobility associated with male travel for trade, commerce, and warfare.
question

The zadruga is a type of extended-family household in A. Mexico. B. Malabar Coast of India. C. Eastern Siberia. D. Western Bosnia. E. Japan.
answer

western bosnia
question

The Life at Home study based on middle-class people who either owned or were buying homes found that American life centered on the A. family room. B. kitchen. C. car. D. bedroom. E. living room.
answer

kitchen
question

According to Tylor, religion evolves through the sequence of A. olympianism, polytheism, monotheism. B. animism, polytheism, monotheism. C. mana, polytheism, monotheism. D. animism, cargo cults, monotheism. E. polytheism, animism, monotheism
answer

animism, polytheism, monotheism.
question

___________ was one of the founders of the anthropology of religion. A. Emile Durkheim B. Anthony Wallace C. Victor Turner D. Edward B. Tylor E. Bronislaw Malinowski
answer

Edward B. Tylor
question

Polytheism refers to A. belief in a single, all-powerful god. B. the second stage of a revitalization movement. C. the third phase of a rite of passage. D. belief in a force that animates all living things. E. belief in multiple gods.
answer

Belief in multiple Gods
question

___________ involves full-time religious specialists. A. Communal religion B. Shamanic religion C. Olympian religion D. Mana E. Taboo
answer

Olympian religion
question

___________ is the belief that whatever is done to an object will affect a person who once had contact with it. A. Contagious magic B. Imitative magic C. Serial magic D. Sequential magic E. Simultaneous magic
answer

Contagious magic
question

According to Tylor, ___________ is the idea that a person’s body is inhabited by two entities. A. olympianism B. totemism C. animism D. mana E. polytheism
answer

Animism
question

Mana is A. a kind of bread prepared during communal rituals in Melanesia and Polynesia. B. absent in societies with differential access to strategic resources. C. the most archaic religious doctrine. D. concerned with supernatural beings rather than with powers or forces. E. acquired in Melanasia, but it is attached to political offices in Polynesia.
answer

acquired in Melanasia, but it is attached to political offices in polynesia
question

__________ refers to the manipulation of the supernatural to accomplish specific goals. A. Animism B. Magic C. Religion D. A rite of passage E. Pantheism
answer

Magic
question

Rites of passage usually consist of __________ phases. A. uncertainty, anxiety, and solace B. ritual, purification, and absolution C. separation, liminality, and incorporation D. aggregation, celebration, and liturgical orders E. confusion, ecstasy, and nirvana
answer

separation, liminality, and incorporation.
question

__________ frequently occurs during the liminal phase of a rite of passage. A. Reversals of ordinary behavior B. Intensification of social hierarchy C. Formation of an implicit ranking system D. Use of secular language E. No change in social norms
answer

reversals of ordinary behavior
question

Induction into the U.S. Marine Corps and going through the Native American vision quest are examples of A. revitalization movements. B. generalized reciprocity. C. totemism. D. rites of passage. E. imitative magic.
answer

rites of passage
question

Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at A. powerful politicians. B. individuals who are widely respected in a community. C. socially marginal people. D. upstanding citizens. E. prominent religious leaders.
answer

socially marginal people
question

Communitas is A. social inequality that is accepted even by those who are less privileged. B. a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness. C. anxiety about the meaning of life. D. the Latin word for mana. E. the supernatural.
answer

a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness.
question

The bodies and possessions of Polynesian chiefs considered taboo because chiefs A. were the primary totems for Polynesian descent groups. B. occupied a liminal place in society. C. were considered to be ritually unpure. D. were practitioners of contagious magic. E. were imbued with a great amount of mana.
answer

were imbued with a great amount of mana .
question

The use of voodoo dolls is an example of A. imitative magic. B. contagious magic. C. taboo. D. animism. E. superstition
answer

imitative magic
question

Malinowski found that the Trobriand Islanders used magic A. as a means of increasing social solidarity. B. to increase the bountifulness of the yam harvest. C. in psychologically stressful situations, such as sailing. D. as a means of leveling Europeans who refused to redistribute their wealth. E. to kill their adversaries during intertribal warfare.
answer

in psychologically stressful situations, such as sailing.
question

____________ have arisen in colonial situations in which local people have regular contact with outsiders but lack their wealth, technology, and living standards. A. Shamanistic cults B. Revitalization movements C. Rite of passages D. Structuralist movements E. Cargo cults
answer

cargo cults
question

As a part of cargo cults, __________ invoked supernatural beings were invoked to intercede, to kill or otherwise deflate the European big men and redistribute their wealth. A. rites of passage B. revitalization movements C. syncretism D. taboos E. magical leveling
answer

magical leveling
question

Sequences of words and actions used during rituals are A. ritual scripts. B. rites of passage. C. taboos. D. liturgical orders. E. communitas.
answer

liturgical orders
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”specific religious beliefs and practices vary cross-culturally\” B. \”religion can be an instrument of societal change, even revolution\” C. \”religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions\” D. \”religion is a cultural universal\” E. \”state religions are presided over by full-time specialists\”
answer

\”religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions.\”
question

The religious specialist most frequently found among foraging bands is a A. full-time practitioner. B. shaman. C. witch. D. priest. E. totem.
answer

Shaman
question

__________ are not examples of shamans. A. Priests B. Curers C. Palm readers D. Astrologers E. Mediums
answer

Priests
question

The largest religion in the world, in terms of number of practitioners, is A. Buddhism. B. Islam. C. Judaism. D. Hinduism. E. Christianity.
answer

Christianity
question

Witch hunts are an example of religion’s function as A. a revitalization movement. B. shamanism. C. a form of social control. D. a mechanism to reduce fear and uncertainty. E. a rite of passage.
answer

a form of social control
question

Cargo cults are A. an example of religion as a form of social control. B. a type of revitalization movement in response to new contact with industrial societies. C. based on the popular style of pants with many pockets. D. religious organizations within the United States that meet in large warehouses. E. rites of passage found among the Betsileo of Madagascar.
answer

a type of revitalization movement in response to new contact with industrial societies
question

Among foragers A. men excel under harsh living conditions and therefore accrue vastly more prestige than women accrue. B. warfare makes men dominant over women. C. the status of women declines when they provide most of the food. D. men and women are equal; there is no gender inequality. E. the lack of a clear public-domestic dichotomy contributes to reduced gender inequality.
answer

The lack of clear public-domestic dichotomy contributes to reduced gender inequality
question

In many highland Papua New Guinea patrilineal-patrilocal societies A. women are the primary producers of subsistence crops. B. women govern the public distribution of prestige items. C. women fear contacts, including sexual intercourse, with men. D. polygyny decreases household productivity because a man must provide for more than one wife. E. the public-domestic dichotomy is minor or nonexistent
answer

Woman are the primary producers of subsistence crops
question

The term intersex describes A. gender stratification processes. B. homosexual practices of the Etoro. C. a discrepancy between external and internal genitals. D. a castrated man. E. sexual practices of chimpanzees.
answer

a discrepancy between external and internal genitals
question

Gender stratification is A. less pronounced among agriculturalists. B. includes societies where women control all the strategic resources. C. generally reduced when the domestic and public spheres are not sharply separated. D. allows women to become more powerful as the contribute more to the domestic sphere. E. allows women to become more powerful as the contribute less to the domestic sphere.
answer

Generally reduced when the domestic and public spheres are not sharply separated
question

__________ is not culturally constructed. A. Race B. Gender C. Kinship D. Sex E. Sexual norms
answer

sex
question

Biological differences between males and females, other than contrasts in breasts and genitals, is A. sex. B. sexual dimorphism. C. gender. D. gender dimorphism. E. sexual bifurcation.
answer

sexual dimorphism
question

In a(n) __________ society, women’s status should be highest. A. pastoral B. agricultural C. horticultural society experiencing considerable population pressure D. tropical foraging E. industrial state with high unemployment
answer

tropical foraging
question

In general, the status of women A. rises as dependence on food production intensifies. B. is higher in societies in which males do most of the work in food production. C. is higher among agriculturalists than it is among foragers. D. is higher in matrilineal societies than it is in patrilineal societies. E. is higher in Yanomami society than it is among the Betsileo of Madagascar.
answer

is higher in matrilineal societies than it is in patrilineal societies
question

__________ refers to the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes. A. Sex roles B. Sex stereotypes C. Gender stereotypes D. Gender roles E. Gender duties
answer

gender roles
question

Recent cross-cultural studies of gender roles demonstrated that A. the gender roles of men and women are largely determined by their biological capabilities. B. women are subservient to men in nearly all societies because their subsistence activities contribute much less to the total diet than do those of men. C. the relative status of women is variable, depending on factors such as subsistence strategy, the importance of warfare, and the prevalence of a domestic-public dichotomy. D. foraging, horticultural, pastoral, and industrial societies all have similar attitudes regarding gender roles. E. changes in the gender roles of men and women are usually associated with social decay and anarchy.
answer

The relative status of woman is variable, depending on factors such as subsistence strategy, the importance of warfare, and the prevalence of domestic-public dichotomy.
question

In general, societies with the patrilineal-patrilocal complex are not characterized by A. scarce resources. B. inheritance of land and prestige through female lines. C. a strongly developed public-domestic dichotomy. D. male control of prestige goods. E. increased inter-village warfare.
answer

Inheritance of land and prestige through female lines
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”anthropologists view sexual orientation as learned, malleable, and culturally constructed\” B. \”culture plays a role in molding individual sexual urges toward a collective norm\” C. \”individuals differ in every society on the nature, range, and intensity of their sexual interests\” D. \”sexual orientation is genetically predetermined, and culture plays no role in its expression\” E. \”four forms of sexual orientation – heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality – are found throughout the world\”
answer

\”Sexual orientation is genetically predetermined, and culture plays no role in its expression\”
question

__________ contributed to the emergence of the American notion that \”a woman’s place is in the home.\” A. European immigration around 1900 B. World War II C. Voting rights for women D. Inflation E. The Women’s Rights Movement
answer

European immigration around 1900
question

Gender differences among tropical and semitropical foragers shows that A. the status of women is much lower than it is among northern foragers like the Inuit. B. women’s work usually contributes more to the diet than does men’s work; consequently, there is less gender stratification. C. the distinction between public and domestic spheres of activity is much sharper than it is in most horticultural societies. D. there is no sex-based division of labor. E. women never take part in hunting.
answer

women’s work usually contributes more to the diet than does men’s work consequently, there is less gender stratification.
question

In patrilineal parilocal societies, A. men control the prestige hierarchy. B. men work harder at food production and manufacturing than do women. C. men are in short supply due to the practice of male infanticide. D. men and women enjoy approximately equal status. E. men trade subsistence goods but not prestige items.
answer

men control the prestige hierarchy
question

Public dichotomy A. tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalists than among foragers. B. tends to be more pronounced among foragers than among pastoralists. C. is not significant in urban industrial societies. D. is reinforced in American society by women working both inside and outside the home. E. is not present in the industrial states of the Western world.
answer

tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalist than among foragers.
question

Domestic-public dichotomy is defines as strong differentiation between A. spheres of exchange. B. the secular and the sacred. C. elite and commoners. D. the home and the outside world. E. local and international trade.
answer

the home and the outside world
question

Cross-cultural studies indicate that A. men contribute much more to subsistence than women do. B. a gender-based division of labor is very uncommon. C. in most societies, women tend to be the primary child caregivers. D. women generally are less restricted than men are with respect to premarital and extramarital sex. E. men never contribute to child care.
answer

in most societies, women tend to be primary child caregivers
question

The __________ is an example of a matrilineal-matrifocal society. A. United States B. Yanomami C. Betsileo D. Etoro E. Minangkabau
answer

Minangkabau
question

More than half of American households with incomes below the poverty line A. are patrifocal. B. are extended. C. are headed by men. D. are headed by women. E. are headed by grandparents.
answer

are headed by woman
question

A political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status is a(an) A. matriarchy. B. patriarchy. C. patrilocality. D. patrilineality. E. anarchy.
answer

Patriarchy
question

__________ is not part of the patrilineal-patrilocal complex. A. Patrilineality B. Patrilocality C. Warfare D. Reduced gender stratification E. Male supremacy
answer

reduced gender stratification
question

The statement, __________, is not true. A. \”according to the Etoro, heterosexual intercourse was believed to sap a man’s vitality\” B. \”according to the Etoro, women who wanted too much heterosexual intercourse were viewed as witches\” C. \”according to the Etoro, heterosexual intercourse was permitted only about 100 days a year\” D. \”according to the Etoro, heterosexual intercourse was permitted to take place only in a couple’s residence E. \”according to the Etoro, heterosexual intercourse was seen as a necessary sacrifice that would eventually lead to a man’s death\”
answer

\”according to the Etoro, heterosexual intercourse was permitted to take place only in a couple’s residence\”
question

The worldwide increase in female-headed households does not stem from A. decreasing divorce rates. B. male migration. C. unwed adolescent parenthood. D. civil strife. E. the idea that child care is a woman’s responsibility.
answer

Decreasing divorce rates
question

The fact that chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates engage in masturbation and same-sex sexual activity suggests that A. human sexuality is completely determined by biology. B. it is immoral for humans to engage in such activities. C. flexibility in sexual expression is part of humans’ primate heritage. D. heterosexual sex is more common among humans than among other primates. E. human sexuality is completely determined by culture
answer

flexibility in sexual expression is part of humans’ primate heritage.
question

A matrilineal-matrilocal society is most likely to emerge when A. population pressure is high. B. a shift to agriculture has recently taken place. C. men’s hunting activities are more important than women’s gathering. D. polygyny is common. E. warfare is infrequent.
answer

warfare is infrequent

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