Anthropology Test 2

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Explanations
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• Meritocracy (ability) – Functionalist theory • Social Conflict – Marxist Theory • Combined influences – Wealth, Prestige, Power – Socioeconomic status – Comparative status tied to multiple actors – Max Weber
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Race and ethnicity
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• Physical traits were used to create the categories of inequality • Racism supports modern social stratification outside economic definitions • Minority status and competition intensify ethnic conflicts
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Gender
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• Gender is a cultural invention, based on sex • It is marked by behavior and material culture • \”Gendering the body\” is one of many ways gender is identified in society through clothing and body modification
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Third gender
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• A cultural definition that has a different set of cultural characteristics than men and women • India – Hijra • Samoa – Fa’afafine • Native America – Two Spirit
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Gender Division of Labor
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• Division of labor is done when one person cannot perform the tasks necessary to survive and flourish due to time, knowledge, or skills required • Gender division of labor is common throughout the world • Many societies put no value difference in different tasks
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Gender stratification
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• Ascribed status • Differential access to power, wealth or privilege based on gender – Supported by sexism • In many societies, results in beliefs of male entitlement
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Gender division of labor
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• In a gender stratified society, one gender’s labor contribution is valued less than another • Gender ideology is the cultural belief that makes this kind of inequality seem ok
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Gender inequality
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• Agrarian societies and inheritance of property can lead to gender inequality, especially in patriarchies • Isolation of women from reproduction and other social interaction • Other models do exist, with inheritance through female line
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Globalization of gender stratification
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• Colonial power differential combined with patriarchies spread ideas of inequality • The \”Native Woman\” was invented as the lowest social class in colonial society – Few rights, highly sexualized, maintained with violence
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Marriage and Family
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• Marriage and families create a basic unit of social and often economic organization • A place to have and raise children – Socialization of culture, or enculturation • Creation of social alliances
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Sexuality
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• Belief in procreative ethic of sexuality prohibits gay marriage • Belief in pleasure ethic of sexuality allows gay marriage • Belief in procreative ethic can oppose adoption or any other form of family other than one created through procreation
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Gender stratification and the family
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• Gender stratification can lead to polygamy – Especially polygyny in patriarchal societies • Matriarchal societies can lead to different forms of social organization – Musuo tribe, China
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Descent groups
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• Lineage – descendants of a single identified ancestor • Clan – descendants of an unidentified ancestor • Can be ambilineal, bilineal, matrilineal, patrilineal, or other more unusual forms
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Residential patterns
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• Residence upon marriage can be influenced by lineage – Patrilocal, matrilocal • Does not always happen – Neolocal • Role of kinship in social and economic organization
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Kinship structure
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• The terms applied to relatives to organize social and familial obligations • Lineal kinship (like us) • Generational (Hawaii) • Bifurcate – Merging – same-sex as parent = parent – Collateral – everyone different
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Kinship and political organization
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• Depends on level of complexity – Smaller, less complex or centralized societies rely more heavily on kinship in political life – Larger, more complex or centralized societies divide kinship from political organization
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Political systems
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• Bands – least complex, egalitarian • Tribes – ranked (achieved status), still fairly small • Chiefdoms – hereditary leadership (ascribed status), larger • States – largest, most centralized, most complex, least influence of kinship
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Power, Authority, and Violence
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• Authority is the social right to express power • Power is the ability to accomplish acts in society • With violence, power can be used to force acceptance without authority, or enforce inequality • Authority allows for the legitimate expression of violence
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Violence and Status
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• Violence is often used to maintain social status – Gender, race, class • Link between kinship, marriage alliances, and status can lead to violence
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Conflicting authorities and values
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• Legal systems and cultural values can easily come in conflict • Leads to vulnerable people being subject to violence despite laws – Homosexuals, violence against women – Violence as a tool to change cultural values in the face of opposition
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Slavery
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• People treated as property • It is estimated that 36 million people are enslaved in the world today – 80% female – Half are forced prostitutes • Despite global ban it continues due to high profits, continuing demand, and cultural acceptance
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Terms in Kinship structures
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• Ego: the central person used as the defining individual • Lineal: direct line of biological descent (parents, siblings) • Affinal: related by marriage (mother-in-law) • Collateral: indirect ancestral relationship (cousin, nephew, aunt) • Parallel cousin: children of same-sex sibling to parent (mother’s sister) • Cross cousin: children of different-sex sibling to parent (mother’s brother) • Bifurcate: divided in two
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Bifurcate Merging
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father’s brother is father, mother is mother’s sister
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Bifurcate Collateral
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Different for everyone, most particular
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Lineal kinship
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distinguishes lineal, affinal and collateral kin
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Generational Kinship
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this calls ascending, same sex relatives by the same names.
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Social Stratification: Class & Ethnicity
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• Inequality is the differential access to social resources • Stratification is placing inequality into a hierarchy • Egalitarian societies do not have significant inequality • Ranked societies have limited inequality • Class societies have inequality linked to social group • Ethnic stratification is a form of ascribed status applied to a class
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Social Stratification: Class & Ethnicity
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• Racism is the cultural system of belief that perpetuates stratification based on culturally-defined \”races\” • Ethnic stratification generally applied to minority populations and in circumstances of competition over resources • Ethnic conflict is found across the world – Genocide and ethnic cleansing • New World slavery created a specific system of inequality focused on people of African and native ethnicity
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Sex and Gender
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• Biological sex is both highly variable and defined by cultural meanings of science • Western society has an investment in binary sex definitions • Gender is based on sex, both culturally defined • Gender identity is marked by behavior and material culture, and gendering the body • Different societies have different genders • Gendered division of labor is part of social organization of most societies
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Sex and Gender
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• Gender stratification can arise when different values are placed on gendered labor or social roles • Patriarchal beliefs often associated with agrarian societies to control inheritance of property • Once established, inequality is maintained by sexism and accepting inequality as \”natural\” • Popular culture, philosophy, and maintaining older traditions serve to support inequality • Gender stratification can be overcome through action – Recognition that inequality exists and should not be maintained
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Marriage and the Family
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• Marriages and the family are a basic unit of social organization; also has economic and potentially political aspects • A primary social unit for the transmission of culture, including by elders • Reproduction and models of sexuality are vital to understanding the family • Sexual ethics (pleasure and procreation) influence attitudes toward marriage and creation of families • Other models exist beyond binary pairing and \”nuclear families\”
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Kinship Systems
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• Kinship systems are the cultural model of ancestry; a form of ascribed identity • The apical ancestor is the individual from whom people claim descent • Can form into lineages, clans, phratries, and moieties – Can be matrilineal, patrilineal, or multilineal – Ambilineal allows selective ancestry • Residence patterns can follow descent system – Creation of social and economic units • Kin terms describe social relationships and follow one of six basic patterns
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Political Systems
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• Power is the ability to do something; authority is the social right to do it • The most common way of discussing political organization divides societies into bands, tribes, chiefdom, and states • Less complex to more complex, greater kinship role to lesser kinship role • Scale of society important in what kind of political organization is possible • Earliest states arose about 5000 years ago
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Violence in Society & modern slavery
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• Violence at a personal scale is often tied to status maintenance • Witchcraft or magic is also related to violence – Those accused of magically harming another – Practice of child sacrifice during rituals • Group conflicts are often tied to gaining or control over resources – Food, wealth, territory – Can also be driven by ideological or religious ideas • Warfare least likely in participatory societies
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Violence in Society & modern slavery
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• Warfare less likely between countries that have regular social or economic contact • Slavery has a long history • Extended period of abolition of slavery continues into the 21st century • Most modern slaves are either sex slaves or forced labor – Second largest criminal business globally – Poverty and inequality main driving force • Sex slaves found in many western countries including the U.S. • Slavery continues due to massive profits and continuing demand

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