Anthropology Test 1

Physical anthropologists can understand human biological variation by looking at changes in:
(all of the above)

Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present. (T/F)

Modern humans lost the typical primate honing canine used for food processing because of which invention?
stone tools

A scientific hypothesis can:
predict future outcomes.
be refuted by new information.
help to explain observed phenomena.
(all of the above)

The four branches of anthropology are:
cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology.

Which of the following would a physical anthropologist NOT study to learn more about humans?
pottery and stone tools

Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human _________.
evolution; variation

Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than are the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominid ancestors from apes. What is a possible reason for this?
Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival.

Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in the proper order?
Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis.

Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research?
the biocultural approach.

Linnaeus’s taxonomic system is referred to as a “hierarchy” because:
each species has a “higher level” genus and “lower level” species.

How is the concept of catastrophism different from the concept of uniformitarianism?
Catastrophism is the idea that geologic changes are the result of single cataclysmic events.

The “peppered” moths of northern England range in color from light to dark. During the Industrial Revolution, the peppered moth population became predominantly dark-colored, as these moths were better able to avoid predation by blending into their surroundings of soot-and-smoke covered trees. This example illustrates which force of evolution?
natural selection

New diseases, such as swine flu (H1N1), can be attributed to the evolution of viruses.

In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes.

Darwin’s ideas about evolution and Mendel’s research in genetics are combined into what we now call the idea of blending inheritance. (T/F)

The study of taxonomy was enriched by the work of:
Carolus Linnaeus

According to Linnaean taxonomy, humans are in the genus and species:
Homo Sapiens

Darwin’s ideas helped stimulate research in the fields of biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and physical anthropology.

How did Lamarck contribute to the theory of evolution?
He did not but instead proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as inheritance of acquired characteristics.

What is Cultural Anthropology?
The study of cultures and societies of humans and their very recent past (living).

What is Archaeology?
The study of past societies and their cultures (dead).

What is Linguistic Anthropology?
The study of language.

What is Anthropology?
The study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of all people and all times.

What is the biocultural approach?
The scientific study of the interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture.

What is a species?
A group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring.

Charles Darwin theory:
Theory of Evolution (adaptations, natural selection, adaptive radiation)

What is uniformitarianism?
Natural processes operating today are the same as those that happened in the past

James Hutton:
Founded modern geology with his theory of the earth’s formation (uniformitarianism).

Georges Cuvier:
Studied fossils, founded catastrophism.

Charles Lyell:
founded more geological evidence.

What is a taxonomy?
a classification of life forms.

Thomas Malthus:
founder of demography.

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarack:
First model of physical traits passing from parents to offspring.

What is uniformitarianism?
Natural processes operating today are the same as those that happened in the past.

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