Anthropology Chapters 17, 18, 19, 20, 23

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Attending a university and gaining an education can result in the upward ________ of a student.
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Mobility
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A_________is a ranked group in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to members of one’s own group.
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Caste
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Anthropologists are reasonably certain that social stratification
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is a recent development in human history
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A ____________is a category of persons who all have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power and prestige.
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Class
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________ are persons who do not own their own labor, and as such they represent at minimum a class.
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Slaves
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If a society is divided into two unilineal descent groups, anthropologists call each group a
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moiety
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In societies with unilineal descent
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some very close biological relatives are excluded from one’s kin group.
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In a patrilocal residence, who leaves the household so that the married couple lives with or near the husband’s parents?
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daughter
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In the United States, what is the most common form of marital residence pattern?
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neolocal
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Because of its ego-centered nature, which of the following is least likely to serve as a permanent or persistent group?
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Kindred
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Sorcerers and witches of both sexes tend to have
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very low social and economic status in their societies.
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When an individual compels the gods to act on his or her behalf
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magic is being performed.
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For anthropologists, the term mana refers to
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a supernatural force residing in some people and objects.
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________ are generally full-time male specialists who officiate at public events.
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Priests
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In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans?
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a society with inequality of wealth
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What are the three types of societies?
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Egalitarian, rank societies, and class societies
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Egalitarian
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all people of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.
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Rank Societies
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do not have any unequal access to economic power or resources, but have unequal access to prestige and status
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Class Societies
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unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige
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Rank of other members of the rank society is based on…
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their relation to the chief.
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Position of chief is often…
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partly inherited
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Open Class Systems
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systems where there is some possibility of moving from one class to another
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Classes vary in
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openness & inequality
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In caste systems, a ranked group…
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May be associated with a certain occupation, Membership is determined at birth, Marriage is restricted to members of one’s own caste
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System perpetuated by…
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power of upper castes because of gains
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Slaves
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persons who do not own their own labor
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Manumission
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the granting of freedom to a slave, can sometimes be bought by the slave themself
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Race is not…4
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a biological concept
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Race is…
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a social and historical category
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Racism
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the belief, without scientific basis, that some \”races\” are inferior to others.
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Ethnic Group
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a group of people who emphasize common origins and language, shared history, and selected cultural differences such as a difference in religion
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The majority group does not…
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perceive itself as belonging to an ethnic group
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Only__________are thought of as belonging to ethnic groups
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minority groups
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What are the theories of the emergence of stratification?
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Surplus Theory, Population pressure, and Inability to move because of investments in land and technology
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Surplus Theory
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A surplus of food requires a central distributor
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Population Pressure Theory
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reduced ability of an environment to support the population leading to an increase in need for cooperation as well as competition for resources
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Inability to Move Theory
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intensive agriculture
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Cross cultural common examples of fluidity in gender roles…
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Two spirits, Xanith, Bacha posh
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Two Spirits
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most often men who dress in women’s clothing and perform many tasks attributed to women, may even be taken as a second wife, is most often a two spirit for life
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Xanith
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anatomical males that speak of themselves as women, but have their own unique clothing that is neither feminine or masculine, gender is fluid and may decide at any point to be a \”man\”
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Bacha posh
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a family without sons will pick a daughter to live and behave as a boy, the bacha posh may be forced to be a \”woman\” again at any point in time
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Humans are sexually dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism is…
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a noticeable difference in size and appearance between males and females of a species
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Theories for Gender Roles
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Strength theory, Compatibility-with-child-care theory, Economy-of-effort theory, and Expendability Theory
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Strength Theory
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The idea that males generally possess greater strength and a superior capacity to mobilize their strength in quick bursts of energy
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Compatibility-with-child-care Theory
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women breast-feed their children for an average of two years so it would have been maladaptive to take on roles that would interfere with their ability to feed their child regularly or put their child in danger while caring for them.
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Economy-of-effort theory
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obtaining the materials for doing certain crafts may give men more knowledge about the properties of the materials and increase their ability to work with them. Also proposes that if a women spends most of her time near home to nurse, most of the chores she does should be near or in the home
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Expendability Theory
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the idea that men, rather than women, tend to do dangerous work in society because the loss of men is not as great a disadvantage reproductively as the loss of women
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Primary Subsistence Activities
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gathering, hunting, fishing, herding, and farming
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Secondary Subsistence Activities
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the preparation and processing of food either to make it edible or to store it
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In most societies dealing with political leadership and warfare…
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Men are the leaders in politics, even if the society is matrilineal and warfare is almost exclusively a male activity
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Gender Stratification
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unequal access to power, prestige, and economic resources based on biological sex, varies greatly from society to society
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How do we explain the variation of gender stratification?
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Women’s status will be high when they contribute substantially to primary subsistence activities, women are less valued than men in societies where warfare is important, women have a lower status than men in a society with a centralized government due to men being more prominent in politics, and women have higher status where kin groups’ places of residence are organized around women.
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What theory of gender stratification explanation is supported by evidence?
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women have a lower status than men in a society with a centralized government due to men being more prominent in politics, and women have higher status where kin groups’ places of residence are organized around women.
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Personality differences between male and female…
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the most consistent difference between boys and girls is the tendency towards aggression, studies show no reliable differences between the levels of sociability between the sexes
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Cultural Regulation of Sexuality…
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all societies have varying rules that govern \”proper\” sexual conduct, but they may change over time
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Reasons for Restrictiveness in Sex
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Abortion or homosexuality may be restricted in societies that want to increase their population and may be less restricted in societies under population pressure. Restrictions in heterosexual relations may be put in place by parents to avoid the connection of their child to someone they deem unsuitable. Sexual restriction can also be seen as a way to control property through arranged marriages.
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Marriage is…
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Cultural, Universal, Varied, and primarily a sexual and economic union
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The \”Na\” Exception
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do not marry, but instead practice sese which is the consensual sexual union of an unmarried couple where the child born is then raised by the mother’s family
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The \”Nayar\” Exception
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a sub-caste in India which lacked the custom of marriage possibly due to men being frequently absent
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Same-Sex Marriages
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common examples of this in history were Cheyenne Two Spirit marriages, Azande boy-wife marriages, and Nandi female-female marriages
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Why is marriage universal?
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Gender Division of Labor, Prolonged Infant Dependency, Sexual Competition, and Postpartum Requirements
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Gender Division of Labor
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As long as there is a division of labor by gender, society has to structure a way for women and men to share their products of labor.
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Prolonged Infant Dependency
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The burden of prolonged infant dependency may limit the kinds of work women do because they are incompatible with child care
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Sexual Competition
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Marriage minimizes the chance of lethal and destructive conflict by preventing excessive sexual competition.
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Postpartum Requirements
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Species that are unable to feed themselves and their babies simultaneously tend to form male-female bonds.
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Marking the Onset of Marriage
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Often marked by a ceremony, the production of offspring, and \”trial marriage\” – living with your significant other
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What are the 6 Economic Aspects of Marriage?
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Bride Price/Wealth, Bride Service, Exchange of Females, Gift Exchange, Dowry, and Indirect Dowry
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Which economic aspect of marriage is most common?
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Bride Price
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Bride Price/Wealth
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A gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride’s kin
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Bride Service
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Requires the groom to work for the bride’s family for a specific period of time
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Exchange of Females
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A sister or female relative of the groom is exchanged for the bride
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Gift Exchange
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The exchange of gifts of about equal value by the two kin groups to be married
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Dowry
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a substantial transfer of goods or money from the bride’s family to the bride, groom, or couple
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Indirect Dowry
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Goods or money given to the bride by the groom’s family
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Incest Taboo
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Prohibits sexual intercourse or marriage between some categories of kin
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Is the Incest Taboo universal?
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Yes
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What are the 5 explanations for the Incest Taboo?
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Childhood-Familiarity Theory, Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, Family-Disruption Theory, Cooperation Theory, and Inbreeding Theory
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Childhood-Familiarity Theory
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People who have been closely associated with each other since earliest childhood are not sexually attracted to each other and therefore would avoid marriage
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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
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The incest taboo is a reaction against unconscious, unacceptable desires, such as a boy being attracted to his mother, to avoid hostility and competition within a family that would otherwise tear it apart
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Cooperation Theory
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The Incest Taboo promotes cooperation among family groups and thus helps the communities survive
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Inbreeding Theory
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Inbreeding will tend to produce offspring that are more likely to die early of genetic disorders than are offspring of unrelated spouses.
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What is the oldest theory of the incest taboo?
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Inbreeding Theory
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Arranged Marriages
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Join together two kin groups forming social and economic ties
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Exogamy
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Marriage outside of one’s kin group or community, Kin ties to different groups
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Endogamy
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Marriage within a group, occurs between members of the same caste or social status
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What are the two types of cousins?
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Cross Cousins and Parallel Cousins
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Cross Cousins
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Children of opposite sex siblings, More common, Marriage to one’s father’s sister’s child or mother’s brother’s child
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Parallel Cousins
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Children of same sex siblings, Marriage to one’s mother’s sister’s child or father’s brother’s child
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Levirate
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A man marries his brother’s widow
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Sororate
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A woman marries her sister’s widower
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Polygamy
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multiple spouses
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Monogamy
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One spouse in your lifetime
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Serial Monogamy
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one spouse at a time, but several could be had in a lifetime
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Polygyny
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Marriage of one man to two or more women at a time, Sororal or Nonsororal
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Polyandry
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Marriage of one woman to two or more men at a time, Fraternal or Nonfraternal
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What are the two variations in family form?
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Nuclear and Extended
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Nuclear
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a family consisting of a married couple and their young children
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Extended
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a family consisting of two or more families linked by a blood tie
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Extended-Family Households
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Households where two or more families linked by a blood tie live in the same home
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Possible Reasons for Extended-Family Households
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More likely in sedentary societies that practice agriculture
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What are the 5 patterns of marital residence?
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Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Bilocal/Ambilocal, Neolocal, and Avunculocal
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Patrilocal Residence
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The married couple lives with or near the husband’s parents.
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Matrilocal Residence
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The married couple lives with or near the wife’s parents.
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Bilocal/Ambilocal Residence
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The married couple lives with or near either the husband’s or the wife’s parents depending on resources
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Avunculocal Residence
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The married couple lives with or near the husband’s mother’s brother.
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Neolocal Residence
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The married couple lives apart from the relatives of both spouses
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Patrilocal, Matrilocal, and Avunculocal are all considered what?
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Unilocal Residence
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Ambilocal Residence is most often found in…
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societies that have recently suffered a severe and drastic loss of population
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Matrilocal Versus Patrilocal Residence
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depends on the type of warfare present in a society, matrilocal more common in external warfare, patrilocal more common in internal warfare
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Which is the most common residence pattern?
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Patrilocal
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Rules of Descent
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rules that connect individuals with particular sets of kin because of common ancestry
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Unilineal Descent
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affiliation with a group of kin through descent links of one sex only, either patrilineal or matrilineal
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Patrilineal Descent
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affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes through men only
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Matrilineal Descent
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affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes through women only
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Ambilineal Descent
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affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes through both men and women
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Double/Double Unilineal Descent
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affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes through women for some purposes and through men for others
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Bilateral Kinship
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individuals affiliate equally with their mother’s and father’s relatives, do not have lineal descent
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Kindred
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a bilateral set of close relatives who may be called upon for some purpose, ego-centered and unstable
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What are the 4 types of Unilineal Descent?
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Lineages, Clans, Phratries, and Moieties
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Lineage
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set of kin whose members trace their descent from a common ancestor through known links
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Clans/Sibs
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a set of kin whose members believe to be descended from a common ancestor, but cannot specify the links back to that founder; often designated by a totem
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Totem
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an animal or plant associated with a clan as a means of identification
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Phratry
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a unilineal descent group composed of a number of related clans
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Moiety
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a unilineal descent group that is divided into two maximal descent groups
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What are the functions of Unilineal Descent?
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Regulating Marriage, Economic Functions, Political Functions, and Religious Functions
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What are the two types of kin?
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Consanguineal and Affinal
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Consanguineal
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related by blood
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Affinal
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related by marriage
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A ________ is a category of persons who all have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power and prestige.
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social class
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A society is practicing which form of stratification when the members of the society have equal access to economic resources but not to prestige?
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rank society
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A ______ is a ranked group in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to members of one’s own group.
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caste
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What percentage of societies do not allow women to participate in warfare?
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88%
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Which of the following is not a primary subsistence activity?
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grinding corn
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According to the _______theory, men may produce musical instruments from wood because men are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its properties better.
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economy of effort theory
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Marriage is considered a________trait by anthropologists because it is practiced by all societies.
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Universal
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Bride________is a gift of goods or money from the groom or his kin to the bride’s kin.
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Price
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A____________is a custom whereby a woman is obliged to marry her sister’s widower.
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Sororate
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Most people in the city of Omaha practice which system of kinship terminology?
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Eskimo
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Two of the following systems of kinship terminology does not identify parallel cousins by the same term as brothers and sisters. Which two is it?
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Eskimo and Sudanese
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Which residence pattern is most closely linked to resource availability?
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Ambilocal
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________________ may be defined as the beliefs and patterns of behavior by which people try to control those aspects of the universe that are otherwise beyond their control.
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Religion
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The belief that nature is animated with impersonal spirits could be a description of:
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Animatism
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Who is considered to have the correct theory about the origins of religion?
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None of the above
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Which form of ritual is part of religious experience in 90% of the world’s societies?
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physiological experience
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Premarital sex is…
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Actively encouraged as preparation for marriage in some societies.
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Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the woman / woman marriage custom found among the Nandi?
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It legitimizes female homosexual relationships.
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The custom of allowing a man to marry more than one woman is
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found in most societies anthropologists have studied and almost always accompanied by rules specifying the rights of different wives
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Human males tend to have a narrow pelvis. Human females tend to have a wide pelvis. This type of difference between human sexes is an example of:
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sexual dimorphism

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