ANTH ch. 7

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The space a species occupies and what it eats are called its
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niche
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When an organism actively perturbs the environment or when it actively moves into a different environment, it is engaging in
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Niche construction
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David Rindos argued that plant domestication came about because
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There were natural selection effects on the plants based on the unconscious activities of people in eating and propagating the plants
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According to Bruce Smith, the ancestors of domesticated seed plants were
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Weedy generalists that, in addition to their dietary appeal, thrived in disturbed environments
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To be dispersed successfully in its wild state, wheat requires
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A brittle rachis
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The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place is called
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sedentism
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Why is the discovery of remains of many immature male herd animals at a site taken as evidence of human involvement with a herd?
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In the wild, animals killed for meat come from a much wider age range, no emphasis on younger, especially younger male, animals humans who manage herds kill immature males more readily than females because only a small number of males are required for reproduction
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The earliest evidence for goat herding is from
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10,000-11,000 years ago
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The evidence from Natufian burials leads scholars like Donald Henry to conclude that
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Natufian social organization had come to resemble what is called a chiefdom.
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How did the Natufians respond to the changes in the resources they depended on?
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By diversifying their subsistence activities
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Archaeologists are coming to agree that domestication was everywhere invented by
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Complex foragers living in areas of relatively abundant resources
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According to the text, how do sedentism and domestication represent a change in worldview?
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Land is transformed into owned territory
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A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige is called
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Social stratification
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A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria is referred to as
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class
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Constructions on a greater-than-human scale are examples of
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Monumental architecture
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Archaeologists digging at a site in Southwest Asia find a series of burials that differ in size, construction, and the quantity of objects found in each. The archaeologists might conclude that the society responsible for the burials was
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stratified
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A society in which one person and his or her relatives have privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige is called a
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chiefdom
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Which of the following has been an explanation proposed for the rise of complex societies?
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Need arose to construct and maintain irrigation systems in dry regions, population pressure required someone to exercise power to allocate resources and keep social chaos from erupting, and sedentary life in farming villages gave people the leisure time to invent social and technological complexity
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Sociocultural features that have been suggested as leading to the rise of social complexity include
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Large populations, extensive division of labor, and occupational specialization and Surplus production
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Which of the following is NOT an Andean society of the pre-Spanish conquest period?
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Inka, chimu, wari, tiwanaku, Moche, Chavin, Paijan, Luz
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The Inka Empire differed from the earlier ChimĂș culture because it was based in
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Rural villages

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