Anatomy Terms

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Developmental Anatomy
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studying structural changes from conception to adulthood
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Embryology
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the study of changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development
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Cytology
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the study of cellular structure
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Histology
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studies the anatomical structure of tissues
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Gross Anatomy
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the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope; can be approached from either a systemic or a regional perspective.
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Systemic Anatomy
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studying one body system at a time
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Regional Anatomy
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studying all structures contained in a specific region
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Surface Anatomy
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the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures
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Anatomical Imaging
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creating pictures of internal body structures
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Physiology
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the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
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Atoms
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the basic components of the chemical level
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Molecules
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atoms are joined together to form…?
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Cell Level
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basic unit of organisms
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Organelles
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The cell level is composed of small structures called…?
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Tissue Level
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composed of a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them. Four basic types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
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Organ Level
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composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common function(s).
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Organ System Level
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composed of a group of organs that have a common function
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Organism Level
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in humans, a complex of organ systems are all mutually dependent on one another.
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Metabolism
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consists of all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism
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Responsiveness
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snese changes in its external or internal enviroment and adjust to the changes
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Growth
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due to cells increasing in size or number
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development
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the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending with death
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Differentiation
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when a cell changes from general to specific
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Morphogenesis
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body changes that occur at puberty
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Reproduction
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involves formation of new cells or new organisms
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Homeostasis
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the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
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Variables
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Body conditions that change over time
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Set Point
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The normal value for a body condition
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Normal Range
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body conditionsare not constant but vary within a … ?
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Negative Feedback
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any deviation from the set pint is made smaller or is resisted.
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Effector
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deviation from the set point; can change the value of a variable
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Control Center
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establishes the set point; detects deviation
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Receptor
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Monitors the value of a variable; analyzes deviation
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Positive Feedback
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a deviation from set point causes the system to make the deviation greater
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anatomic position
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a person is standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
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supine
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laying down on the back with face upward
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prone
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laying down on the stomach with face downward
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superior
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up
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inferior
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down
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anterior
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front
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posterior
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back
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cephalic
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synonymous with superior
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caudal
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synonymous with inferior
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ventral surface
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belly
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dorsal surface
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back
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proximal
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the end of a structure neaarer to the poin of origin
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distal
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the end of a structure farther from the point of origin
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medial
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a structure closer to the midline of the body
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lateral
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a structure farther from the midline of the body
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superficial
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structures near the body surface
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deep
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structures that are in the interior of the body
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arm
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the body from the shoulder to the elbow
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forarm
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the body from the elbow to the wrist
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thigh
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the body from the hip to the knee
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leg
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the body from the knee to the ankle
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sagittal
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the vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions
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median
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the vertical plane that divides the body int equal right and left halves
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transverse/horizontal
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the plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
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frontal/coronal
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the vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
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thoracic cavity
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surrounded by the rib cage, and separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm.
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mediastinum
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median portion (thoracic cavity)
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lungs
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found on either side of the median portion
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abdominal cavity
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contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.
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pelvic cavity
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contains the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.
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abdominopelvic cavity
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the abdominal and pelvic cavities
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serous membranes
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found covering the organs of the trunk cavities and linint the trunk cavities
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visceral serous membrane
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covers the organ
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perietal serous membrane
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lines the organ
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serous fluid
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reduces friction
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pericardial cavity
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surrounds the heart
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pleural cavity
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surrounds each lung
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peritoneal cavity
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found within the abdominopelvic cavity
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mesenteries
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anchor the organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach the orgnas; composed of two layers of peritoneum fused together
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retroperitoneal
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organs that are directly attached to the body wall and covered only with a perietal peritoneum

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