anatomy & physiology midterm study guide

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anatomy
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the study of the structure of the human body
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cytology
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study of individual cells from the body
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histology
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study of tissues from the body
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physiology
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the study of the jobs and functions of the human body
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How are anatomy and physiology related?
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Physiology is the study of how anatomy works
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pathological physiology
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study of the effects of disease on organs and systems in the body
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List in order the seven levels of organization in the human body?
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Atomic Molecular Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism
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Atomic level
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smallest level
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Molecular level
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groups of atoms working together to perform a specific function
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Cellular level
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groups of molecules working together to perform a specific function
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Tissue level
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groups of cells working together to perform a specific function
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Organ level
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groups of tissues working together to perform a specific function
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Organ system
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groups of organs working together to perform a specific function
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Organism
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all organ systems working together to perform a specific function
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List the organ systems of the human body
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Skeletal Muscular Integumentary Lymphoid Endocrine Urinary Nervous Digestive Respiratory Reproductive Cardiovascular
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integumentary system: major organs
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skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
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integumentary system: functions
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protects against environmental hazards helps regulate body temperature provides sensory information
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muscular system: major organs
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skeletal muscles and associated tendons
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muscular system: functions
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provides movement protection and support for other tissues generates heat that maintains the body temp
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endocrine system: major organs
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pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, suprarenal glands, gonads (testes and ovaries), endocrine tissues in other systems
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endocrine system: functions
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directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body controls many structural and functional changes during development
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skeletal system: major organs
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bones, cartliages, associated ligaments, bone marrow
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skeletal system: functions
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provides support and protection for other tissues stores calcium and other minerals forms blood cells
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nervous system: major organs
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brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs
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nervous system: functions
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directs immediate response to stimuli coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
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cardiovascular system: major organs
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heart, blood, blood vessels
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cardiovascular system: functions
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distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature
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lymphoid system: major organs
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spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
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lymphoid system: functions
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defends against infection and disease returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
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digestive system: major organs
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teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancrease
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digestive system: functions
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processes and digests food absorbs and conserves water absorbs nutrients stores energy reserves
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male reproductive system: major organs
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testes, epididymides, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostrate gland, penis, scrotum
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male reproductive system: functions
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produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids and hormones sexual intercourse
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respiratory system: major organs
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nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
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respiratory system: functions
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delivers air to alevoli provides oxygen to bloodstream removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream produces sounds for communication
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urinary system: major organs
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kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
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urinary system: functions
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excretes waste products from the blood controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced stores urine prior to voluntary elimination regulates blood ion concentrations and ph
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female reproductive system: major organs
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ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands
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female reproductive system: functions
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produce female sex cells and hormones supports developing embryo form conception to delivery provides milk to nourish newborn infant sexual intercourse
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homeostasis
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maintaining a stable internal environment
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homeostatic regulatory mechanisms (3 parts)
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receptor control center effector
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autoregulation or intrinsic regulation
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occurs when a cell, a tissue, an organ, or an organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change.
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extrinsic regulation
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results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system, that control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously
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example of autoregulation (intrinsic)
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when oxygen levels decline in a tissue, the cells release chemicals that dilate local blood vessels, the dilation increases the rate of blood flow and provides more oxygen to the region
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negative feedback
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when the response of the effector negates stimulus (stops stimulus from continuing to send message)
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anatomical position
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hands at sides, palms forward
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superior (cranial)
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body part is above another part or closer to the head
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inferior (caudal)
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located below another body part or toward the feet
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medial
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imaginary midline divides into equal right and left sides; body part is medial if closer to this line than another
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anterior (ventral)
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relate to being towards front of body
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posterior (dorsal)
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toward the back of the body
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lateral
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away from the bodys longitudinal axis, away from the midsagital plane
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distal
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body part is farther from the point of attachments or farther from the trunk than another part
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fingers are __________ to wrists
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distal
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proximal
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describes a body part that is closer to a part of attachment or closer to the trunk of the body than another part
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elbow is ___________ to wrists
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proximal
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superficial
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situated near the surface
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deep
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parts more internal
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anterior
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face front
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posterior
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face down
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prone
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to lie with the anterior surface down
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supine
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to lie with the anterior surface up
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abdominal
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front of trunk below diaphragm
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antecubutis
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front side of elbow
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axilla
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armpit
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brachial
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shoulder to elbow
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buccal
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cheek
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carpal
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wrist
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cervical
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neck
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cephalic
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head
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cubital
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elbow
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deltoidal
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shoulder
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digital
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fingers or toes
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femoral
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pelvis to knee (thigh area)
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inguinal
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groin
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gluteal
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buttock
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lumbar
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lower back
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nasal
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nose
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oral
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mouth
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orbital
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eye socket
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sural
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posterior leg (knee to foot)
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middle ear
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within the temporal bones: ear ossicles
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nasal
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superior to oral cavity; nasal septum, conchae
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oral
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inferior to nasal cavity; tongue and teeth
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orbital
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anterior-superior skull; eyes
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synovial fluids
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reduce joint friction
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parasagittal
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divides the body or organ into unequal right and left sides
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transverse
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cuts across the long axis of the body or organ
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Functions needed to maintain life
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respond & adapt use energy reproduce grow & develop maintain homeostasis organization made of cells
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survival needs of the human body
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water oxygen nutrients body temperature atmospheric pressure
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__________________ brings body back into homeostasis for normal body function
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Negative feedback
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Type of organs in abdominal cavity
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digestive organs
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Organs contained in abdominopelvic cavity
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reproductive organs, rectum, bladder
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(Two main) organs contained in thoracic cavity
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lungs, heart
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Matter
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anything that has mass and takes up space
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Energy
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the ability to do work
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All ______ has _________ (fill in: energy, matter)
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All MATTER has ENERGY
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Name the five forms of energy
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Potential Kinetic Chemical Electrical Mechanical
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Example of potential energy
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energy in food before digested
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Example of kinetic energy
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movement of muscles
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Example of chemical energy
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digestion
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Example of mechanical energy
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joints moving
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Example of electrical energy
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nervous system
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Name the four types of membranes
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mucous serous cutaneous synovial
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Function and location of mucous membrane
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line passageways that have external connections located in respiratory, digestive, urinary tracts
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Function and location of synovial membrane
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line moving, articulating joint cavities located in joints
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Function and location of serous membrane
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line cavities not open to outside located in lungs, heart
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Function and location of cutaneous membrane
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protection, prevent water loss located in skin and surface of body
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Structure of mucous membrane
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epithelium surrounded by areolar connective tissue
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Structure of serous membrane
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mesothelium surrounded by areolar tissue
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Structure of cutaneous membrane
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epithelium surrounded by connective tissue
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Structure of synovial membrane
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epithelium surrounded by areolar tissue
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Which is the only membrane type that’s structure does not contain an epithelium?
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serous (mesothelium)
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Which is the only membrane that is not a form of areolar tissue?
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cutaneous (connective tissue)
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List the three epidermal derivatives
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Sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair
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Sebaceous glands
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excrete sebum. lubricate and protect epidermis. near hair follicles.
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Sweat glands
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excrete watery substance, cool skin, excrete water/electrolytes,flush microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin. located armpits, nipples, groin, palms, soles of feet.
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Hair
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guard openings, sensitive to touch, protect and insulate body. located everywhere except palms, soles, lips, portions of external genitalia
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Skin color is affected by
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carotene and melanin
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Melanin protects
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the skin from sun damage
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First degree burn (location and symptoms)
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located on surface of epidermis. skin becomes red
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Second degree burn (location and symptoms)
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entire epidermis destroyed and sometimes dermis. skin is very damaged, swollen, very painful
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Third degree burn (location and symptoms)
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dermis and epidermis both destroyed. not as painful as second degree burn because nerves are destroyed. skin grafts are often needed to repair damage
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Rule of Nines
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helps to identify amount of surface area damaged, and determine best treatment
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Basal Cell Carcinoma
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most people survive. never metastasize
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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seldom metastasize, caused by sun exposure. most people survive
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Malignant Melanoma
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often deadly, melanocytes grow and metastasize rapidly
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Integumentary system aging (examples)
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epidermal thinning, oss of melanocytes, decrease of dendritic cells, ability of D3 absorption decreases, sweat gland function decreases, nails become brittle, slower repair rate
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Axial skeleton includes:
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cranium, face, auditory ossicles, hyoid, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
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Functions of skeletal system
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support, protection, movement (also stores minerals and lipids and produces blood cells)
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Major anatomical areas of a long bone
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diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis
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Bone salts and organic matrices make bones…
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hard and flexible ( bone salts lend hardness, protein-ric organic matrix allows flexibility)
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Bone remodeling
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Adult skeleton maintains itself, replaces mineral reserves, recycles and renews bone matrix, involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.
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Lordosis
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excessive lumbar curvature
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Scoliosis
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lateral curve to spine
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Kyphosis
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normal thoracic becomes exaggerated posteriorly
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Fontanelles
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cover unfused sutures in infant skull and allow skull to flex during birth
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Pott fracture
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occurs at ankle and affects both bones of the leg
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Comminuted fracture
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shatter affected area
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Transverse fracture
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break bone across its long axis
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Spiral fracture
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caused by twisting stresses
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Displaced fracture
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produce new and abnormal bone arrangements
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Colles fracture
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break in the distal portion of the radius
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Greenstick fracture
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only one side of the shaft is broken, the other is bent. occurs mainly in children
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Epiphyseal fracture
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tends to occur where bone matrix is calcifying
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Compression fracture
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when vertebrae is under extreme stress (from a fall)
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Infant skull
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grows rapidly large compared to body many ossification centers fusion not complete at birth 2 frontal. 4 occipital bones
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Typical vertebra
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Vertebral body, Arch, Articular process
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Cervical vertebrae
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small body, large vertebral foramen
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Thoracic vertebrae
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larger bodies, smaller vertebral foramen, articulates with heads of ribs
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Lumbar vertebrae
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largest vertebrae, no costal/transverse costal facets
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Spinal curvatures
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accommodate internal organs and shift weight for upright posture
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Intervertebral discs
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absorb shock
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Bone salts and the organic matrix make bones
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hard & flexible
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Bone formation
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Osteoprogenitor cells divide to produce osteoblasts. Osteoblasts secrete matrix compounds, and when surrounded by bone become osteocytes. Osteocytes maintain bone matrix and repair damaged bones.
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Bone remodeling
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Adult skeleton maintains itself, replaces mineral reserves, recycles and renews bone matrix, involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.

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