anatomy chapter 2 basic chemistry

matter
anything that occupies space and has mass

energy
ability to do work

elements
fundamental units of matter

What are the four elements that make up 96% of the body?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen

atoms
building blocks of elements, united by chemical bonds

what is in the nucleus? what is orbiting it?
protons and neutrons in, elcetrons orbit

Protons equal…
electrons

atomic number
equal to number of protons/electrons

atomic mass number
sum of the products and neutrons

isotopes
atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and the same atomic number, but vary in neutrons( different mass)

radioisotope
heavy isotope, tends to be unstable, decompose to more of a stable isotope

radioactivity
process of spontaneous atomic decay

molecule
two or more atoms of the same elements combined chemically

compound
two or more atoms of different elements combined chemically

valence shells
not full and are unstable, tend to lose, gain ,or share electrons

ionic bonds
atoms become stable through the transfer of electrons, form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

ions
results from loss or gain of electrons

covalent bonds
atoms become stable through shared electrons, shared in pairs, single covalent bonds ahre one pair of electrons and double bonds share two pairs

nonpolar
electrons shared equally between the atoms, neutral

polar
electrons are not shared equally between atoms, ahve positive and negative side

hydrogen bonds
weak chemical bonds, attracted to negative side of polar compound

synthesis reaction
A+B=AB, put together ,changed, atoms combine

decomposition reaction
AB = A +B , molecule is broken down

excahnge reaction
AB+C = AC+B, single replacement

organic compound
contains carbon, most covalent, carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid

OH group attached makes…
alcohol

inorganic compound
lack carbon, tend to be simpler compounds, includes water, salts, some acids ,and bases

20
amino groups / R groups

water
most abundant inorganic compound in the body, polar

vital properties of water
high heat capacity, polarity/ solvent properties( to dissolve polar substances), chemical reactivity, and cushioning

salts
easily dissociate into ions in the presence of water, vital to many body functions, include elctrolytes

acids
release hydrongen ions (H+), are proton donors, HCl is an acid

bases
release hydrocyl ions (OH-), are proton acceptors, NaOH is a base

acid + base =
water, left over salt

buffers
chemicals that regulate pH change, HCO-3 ( bicarbonate molecule) is most common

dehydration synthesis
monomers or building blocks are joined to form polymers thorugh removal of water

hydrolysis
polymers are broken down into monomers through addition of water molecules

nucleic acid
DNA RNA ATP

monomers
building blocks of each compound

carbohydrates
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, include sugars and starches, monosaccharides, etc.

monosaccharides
monomer for carbs , include glucose, fructose, gulactose

disaccharides
sucrose, maltose, lactose

lipids
contain carbon ,hydrogen, and oxygen, carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen, insoluble in water, includes, fats, phospholipids, steriods, oils, waxes

lipid monomer
fatty acid

neutral fats
found in fat deposits

phospholipids
contain tw ofatty acids rather than three, form cell membranes

steriods
made of cholesterol

proteins
half of body’s organic matter, provide construction materials for tissues, act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, built from amino acids

monomer for proteins
amino acid

enzyme
organc catalyst

amino acid structure
contain an amine group, acid group, vary only by R group

fibrous proteins
structural proteins, appear in body structures, collegen and keratin, are stable

globular proteins
functionl proteins, anitobides or enzymes, changed so it can never do same job ( denatured)

nucleic acid
built from nucleotides, include pentose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base ( a, ,g ,c ,t), DNA, RNA, ATP

monomer for nucleic acid
nucleotides

compliments
A=T C=G

DNA
genetic material in cells,provide instructions for every protein, replicates before cell division

RNA
carries out DNA instructions, messenger, transfer, ribosomial

heat is
thermal , kinetic, infrared and molecular

protons
in nucleus, +1 charge , 1 amu

neutron
in nucleus, 0 charge, 1 amu

electrons
orbitals, -1 charge, 0 amu

Na+ and K+ are needed for…
nerve cells to conduct electricla impluses

iron is nescessary for…
oxygen transport in red blood cells

ATP
universal eneryg currency of cells

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